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• father; mother; parents; son; daughter; child; children; offspring; brother; sister; sibling; siblings; twins; twin brothers; twin brother; twin sisters; twin sister; younger brother; kid brother; older sister; elder sister; to bring up children; to raise children; Formal words: offspring (i.e., child or children); sibling (i.e., brother or sister); spouse (i.e., husband or wife). grandfather; grandmother; granny; grandparents; grandson; granddaughter; grandchild; grandchildren; great-grandfather; great-grandmother; great-grandchild; Adoption and related words adopted son; adopted daughter; adopted child; half-brother (half brother); half-sister (half sister); stepfather; stepmother; stepbrother; stepsister; stepchild; foster family; foster father; foster mother; foster parents; foster home; foster son; foster daughter; foster child; foster brother; foster sister; to adopt a child; to foster a child; orphan, orphans; Relatives uncle; aunt; nephew; niece; cousin; first cousin; second cousin; close relatives; distant relatives; closest relatives; nearest relatives; next of kin; immediate family; family members; members of the family; head of the household; my family; my relatives; my folks; my kin; my kinfolk (kinsfolk); Relatives by marriage in-laws; father-in-law; mother-in-law; son-in-law; daughter-in-law; brother-in-law; sister-in-law; Note the plural: two sons-in-law; three daughters-in-law; brothers-in-law; sisters-in-law. Note the possessive case: my father-in-law’s house;
NaszeStrony-Moda-Natura-Polska-Prasa-Media-Informacje-Inowrocław-historia-Kujawy-gospodarka-przyroda-wiadomości-zabytki-rzeki-ubrania-samochody-obrona-żegluga-wojsko-polityka-międzynarodowa Affaires internationales Economy Nature Cars History Defense Beauty Fashion Press Poland European Union Polish Inowrocław Bydgoszcz Toruń Warszawa Paryż Cergy – Pontoise Paris Nowy Jork New York Francja France USA News Wiadomości watch zegarek buty ubrania shoes clothes cosmetics kosmetyki autamy sister-in-law’s car. Age groups and related words boy, girl; male child; female child; man, woman; child; baby; newborn baby; infant; toddler; little boy; little girl; kid; childhood; teenager; teenage boy; teenage girl; adolescent; young boy; youngster; youth, youths; lad; young girl; young man; young woman; adult; grownup; middle-aged man; middle-aged woman; old man; old woman; senior members of the family; younger members of the family; Marital status and related words single; married; engaged; separated; divorced; widowed; to marry; to get married; marriage; husband; wife; spouse; ex-husband; ex-wife; divorce; married couple; husband and wife; married man; unmarried man; bachelor; married woman; unmarried woman; single mother; widow; widower; grass widow; grass widower; fiance; engagement; engagement ring; bride; bridegroom (groom); bridesmaid; best man; wedding; wedding ring; wedding cake; newlyweds; honeymoon; divorce; alimony; child support; child custody; girlfriend; boyfriend; Other related words ancestor; forefather; descendant; heir; generation; family tree; genealogy; family history; date of birth; place of birth; birthplace; birthday; birthday party; birthday presents; pregnancy; childbirth; the baby is due in June; birth; guardian; godfather; godmother; godson; goddaughter; godchild; nursery; creche; day-care center; nursery school; kindergarten; nanny; babysitter; illness, sickness, disease; death; funeral; burial; cemetery; graveyard; grave. My family I have a large family. My father is 57. (fifty-seven) He works as an engineer at a plant. My mother is 55. She works part-time as a nurse. My younger brother is a student of economics. He is going to graduate next year. I also have an older sister. She is married and lives with her family in an apartment house not far from us. They often visit us. Her daughter Lena, my niece, is a very talented girl. She plays the piano and writes interesting poems. I am married. My wife Olga is a schoolteacher. She teaches mathematics. We have two children, a boy and a girl. My son Victor is six years old, and my daughter Anna is three years old. They go to a kindergarten near our house. My wife picks them up on her way home from work and takes a long walk with them in the park. My mother looks after the children when we work late, and my mother-in-law takes care of them on Saturdays. We live in a large house with a nice garden. There is enough room for all of us, and I even have my own study in the attic. It is small, but I like it. There is a table with my computer on it, a chair, and a book shelf. I spend a lot of time there working with my papers and studying English. We have a lot of relatives. My aunt and two uncles live in a small town about 60 kilometers from my hometown. Their children, my cousins, are about my age, and we communicate often. Every year the whole family gets together for Christmas. We prepare a huge Christmas dinner, and there are a lot of presents for everyone. Моя семья У меня большая семья. Моему отцу 57 лет. Он работает инженером на заводе. Моей матери 55 лет. Она работает неполный рабочий день медсестрой. Мой младший брат – студент экономики. Он заканчивает институт в следующем году. У меня также есть старшая сестра. Она замужем и живёт со своей семьёй в многоквартирном доме недалеко от нас. Они часто навещают нас. Её дочь Лена, моя племянница, очень талантливая девочка. Она играет на пианино и пишет интересные стихи. Я женат. Моя жена Ольга – школьный учитель. Она преподаёт математику. У нас двое детей, мальчик и девочка. Моему сыну Виктору шесть лет, а моей дочери Анне три года. Они ходят в детский сад возле нашего дома. Моя жена забирает их по пути домой с работы и долго гуляет с ними в парке. Моя мать смотрит за детьми, когда мы работаем допоздна, а моя тёща смотрит за ними по субботам. Мы живём в большом доме с хорошим садом. Места достаточно для всех, а у меня даже есть свой собственный кабинет на чердаке. Он маленький, но мне нравится. В нём стол с моим компьютером, стул и книжная полка. Я провожу там много времени, работая с бумагами и изучая английский язык. У нас очень много родственников. Моя тётя и два дяди живут в маленьком городе примерно в 60 километрах от моего родного города. Их дети, мои двоюродные братья и сёстры, примерно моего возраста, и мы часто общаемся. Каждый год вся семья собирается вместе на Рождество. Мы готовим огромный рождественский обед, и для всех есть множество подарков. BrE and AmE BrE: elder brother; elder sister – AmE: older brother; elder brother; older sister; elder sister; BrE: flat – AmE: apartment; BrE: block of flats – AmE: apartment house; BrE: centre, centres – AmE: center, centers; BrE: kilometre, kilometres – AmE: kilometer, kilometers. Related materials: British and American Vocabulary in the section Vocabulary; About Myself in the section Phrases; Family and Friends Management president; vice-president; director; manager; executive officer; CEO (chief executive officer; company executive officer); deputy director; managing director; financial director; marketing director; general manager; assistant manager; manager; production manager; personnel manager; marketing manager; sales manager; project manager; supervisor; inspector; controller; Office workers office worker; office employee; office clerk; filing clerk; receptionist; secretary; assistant; typist; stenographer; Banking and financial activities banker; bank officer; economist; auditor; accountant; bookkeeper; teller; cashier; bank clerk; financier; treasurer; investor; sponsor; stockbroker; pawnbroker; tax collector; Sales and stores sales representative; sales manager; salesperson; salesman; saleswoman; salesgirl; salesclerk; cashier; seller; buyer; wholesale buyer; wholesaler; retailer; merchant; distributor; dealer; trader; advertising agent; grocer; greengrocer; baker; butcher; florist; Medicine doctor; physician; family doctor; general practitioner; eye specialist; ear specialist; throat specialist; heart specialist; cardiologist; surgeon; pediatrician; psychiatrist; psychoanalyst; dentist; dietitian; pharmacist; veterinarian; nurse; paramedic; nurse’s aide; School and college principal; dean; professor; teacher; instructor; schoolteacher; college teacher; university teacher; head teacher; senior teacher; tutor; mentor; counselor (BrE: counsellor); teacher of mathematics; mathematics teacher; math teacher (BrE: maths teacher); English teacher; teacher of English; history teacher; music teacher; student; pupil; learner; Science scientist; scholar; researcher; explorer; inventor; mathematician; physicist; chemist; biologist; botanist; zoologist; historian; archaeologist; geologist; psychologist; sociologist; economist; linguist; astronomer; philosopher; geographer; IT specialists computer specialist; computer programmer; computer operator; software specialist; systems analyst; systems administrator; web developer; web programmer; webmaster; web designer; Art and creative work artist; painter; sculptor; architect; composer; conductor; musician; pianist; violinist; guitarist; drummer; player; singer; dancer; opera singer; ballet dancer; performer; film director; producer; art director; cameraman; actor; actress; player; writer; poet; author; playwright; dramatist; scenarist; publisher; journalist; reporter; correspondent; photographer; designer; fashion designer; dress designer; interior designer; furniture designer; graphic designer; Construction, repair, maintenance builder; construction worker; developer; contractor; engineer; technician; mechanic; electrical engineer; electrician; welder; bricklayer; mason; carpenter; plumber; painter; decorator; repairer; repairman; maintenance man; handyman; caretaker; housekeeper; cleaning lady; cleaning woman; janitor; Pilots, drivers, crew members pilot; flight engineer; flight navigator; flight attendant; stewardess; dispatcher; mechanic; car mechanic; railroad worker; railway worker; driver; chauffeur; taxi driver, cabdriver; bus driver; truck driver; captain; skipper; navigator; sailor; Law and order judge; lawyer; attorney; legal adviser; barrister; solicitor; police officer; policeman; traffic officer; detective; guard; bodyguard; lifeguard; warden; prison guard; Restaurants chef; head cook; cook; maitre d’hotel (maitre d’); headwaiter; waiter; waitress; bartender; barman; barmaid; dishwasher; busboy; Other firefighter, fireman; tailor; seamstress; postman, mailman; travel agent; travel guide; model; politician; porter; editor; proofreader; printer; translator; interpreter; librarian; jeweler (BrE: jeweller); telephone operator; coal miner; farmer; farm worker; fisherman; hunter; forester; gardener; hairdresser; hair stylist; barber; beautician; cosmetologist; specialist; expert; consultant; adviser; priest; clergyman; Places of work office; agency; company; firm; corporation; business firm; enterprise; plant; factory; restaurant; department store; bank; hospital; hotel; school; university; library; theater; museum; art gallery; transportation company; shipping company; construction company; publishing company; film company; insurance company; advertising agency; travel agency; rental agency; Related terms to look for a job; to find a job; to apply for a job; to get a job; to offer a job; to hire; to be hired; to fire; to be fired; to be laid off; to lose one’s job; to quit; to quit one’s job; to leave; to resign; to retire; employment; unemployment; unemployed; jobless; job seeker; letter of application for a job; resume; CV; job interview; work agreement; contract; employer; employee; co-worker; promotion; Describing a job a job in electronics; a teaching job; a position as secretary; an interesting job; a boring job; a good job; a difficult job; a challenging job; a well-paid job; a highly paid job; a low-paid job; a badly paid job; a full-time job; a part-time job; a permanent job; a stable job; a temporary job; to work full-time; to work part-time; to have a part-time job; to be on the staff; a staff of ten workers; a staff member; a member of staff; to work overtime; to work on weekdays; to work on Saturdays; a day off; Describing workers worker, employee, workman, laborer (BrE: labourer); skilled workers; unskilled workers; qualified workers; experienced workers; a full-time worker; a part-time worker; a temporary worker; a freelance worker; seasonal workers; manual workers; blue-collar workers; white-collar workers; Pay, taxes, benefits pay; wages; salary; earnings; fee; bonus; tips; income; payday; payment; to be paid by the hour; to be paid by the month; to earn (to get, to make) money; monthly pay; weekly pay; hourly pay; yearly pay; annual pay; monthly salary; yearly salary; annual salary; salaried workers; weekly wages; hourly wage; minimum wages; low wages; high wages; gross pay; net pay; take-home pay; overtime pay; severance pay; gross earnings; net earnings; average earnings; annual earnings; taxes; expenses; deductions; dues; fine; penalty; compensation; fringe benefits; sick leave; maternity leave; holiday; vacation; pension plan; medical insurance; health insurance; accident insurance; life insurance; Pay: Examples in sentences She gets ten dollars an hour. She is paid ten dollars an hour. Her hourly pay is ten dollars. He gets two thousand dollars a month. His monthly pay is two thousand dollars. His monthly salary is two thousand dollars. They get twenty-three thousand dollars a year. Their annual pay is $23,000. His salary is thirty-four thousand dollars a year. His salary is $34,000 a year. He earns thirty thousand dollars a year. He earned twenty thousand dollars last year by writing short stories. She earns two thousand a month. How much do you earn? How much did you get last year? How much does he make? Related phrases What do you do? What business are you in? I am a teacher. I am a car dealer. I am a freelance writer. I am a sales representative. I sell computers. I work as a psychologist. I work as a stockbroker. I work at a bank. I work at a small travel agency. I work at a hotel. I work at a transportation company. I work for a newspaper. I work for a film company. I am in real estate. I am in advertising. I have a small business of my own. I am a homemaker. I work at home. I am unemployed at the moment. I am looking for a job right now. I am looking for a job in marketing. I am looking for a job as a driver. I am seeking a position as librarian. I am seeking a position as office clerk. He is looking for a place as a housekeeper. She is looking for a place as a cook. I’d like to apply for a job. I’d like to apply for the position of shop assistant. He was offered the position of salesclerk. She has a position as cashier. Note: work, labor, job, position, profession, occupation work (работа, труд любого характера) – hard work; easy work; manual work; physical work; intellectual work. I have a lot of work today. He is at work now. My work is very interesting. What work do you do? labor, BrE labour (труд, работа, тяжёлый труд) – manual labor; physical labor. Manual labor is hard and tiring. job (работа, должность, оплачиваемый наёмный труд) – He lost his job last month. Do you like your new job? She wants to change her job. position (положение, должность, место) – How long did you work in your previous position? profession (профессия) – The profession of a doctor requires a lot of training. He is a lawyer by profession. occupation (занятие, профессия) – Write your name, age and occupation on this line. What is his occupation? What is your favorite occupation? – Reading. Note: Names of jobs and professions are usually formed with the help of the suffixes ER, OR, IAN, IST, ANT, ENT. Often, names of jobs and professions are compound nouns, and some of them may have variants of spelling. Примечание: Слова и фразы на одной и той же строке НЕ синонимы. Appearance attractive, good-looking, beautiful, handsome, pretty, cute, nice; plain, plain-looking, unattractive, ugly; well-dressed, nicely dressed, casually dressed, poorly dressed; neat, clean, untidy, dirty. Height tall, very tall, quite tall, six feet tall, not very tall, short; average height, medium height, middle height; he is average height; she is of middle height. Weight and Build thin, quite thin, slim, slender, skinny, medium-build, overweight, fat; strong, muscular, athletic. Hair dark, fair, black, red, brown, blond, chestnut brown, white, gray; long, short, medium-length, shoulder-length; straight, curly, wavy, thick, thinning, bald; shiny, smooth, neatly combed; dull, tousled, disheveled. Eyes blue, green, gray, brown, light-blue, dark-gray, grayish-blue, dark; big, bright, expressive, with long lashes. Age young, old, middle-aged; twenty years old, in her thirties, about forty. Character pleasant personality, good-tempered, good-natured, easy-going; terrible character, bad-tempered, ill-natured; friendly, sociable, outgoing, unfriendly, hostile, unsociable; strong, tough, independent, mature, weak, immature; dependable, reliable, trustworthy, honest, unreliable, dishonest; reasonable, sensible, unreasonable, unpredictable, impulsive; ambitious, hard-working, energetic, lazy; disciplined, organized, careful, accurate; undisciplined, disorganized, careless, inaccurate, inattentive; attentive, alert, perceptive, observant, insightful, thoughtful, considerate; aggressive, pushy, self-centered, selfish, egoistical, inconsiderate; self-confident, shy, timid, modest, humble; haughty, arrogant, impudent; stubborn, obstinate; moody, melancholic, self-conscious, touchy, sensitive; humorous, amusing, funny, interesting, dull, boring; generous, unselfish, kind, kind-hearted; economical, thrifty, stingy, miserly, greedy; formal, official, informal, relaxed, casual; strange, odd, weird, eccentric, crazy. Mind intelligent, broad-minded, sharp, keen, bright, quick, agile, wise, clever; foolish, stupid, narrow-minded, silly. Related Phrases What does she look like? She is young and good-looking, with dark eyes and long red hair. He is tall and thin, with brown hair. He is twenty-five years old. She is average height, dark-haired, quite thin, and wears glasses. She’s about fifty. He is old, short, medium-build, with gray hair and a beard. She has dark eyes, wavy blond hair, and a nice figure. She looks great. He is a handsome middle-aged man. She is a pretty young girl. How do I look? You look good. You look great. You look nice. You look terrible. You look awful. What is he like? He is friendly and dependable. He is interesting and amusing. He is smart and honest. He also has a good sense of humor. I like him. She is careless and lazy. You can’t depend on her. She is serious, organized, hard-working, and tough. He is old, sick, and lonely. She is a nice clever girl. His character is terrible. He is hostile and bad-tempered. He doesn’t have many friends. She is knowledgeable and broad-minded, and she likes to help young people. Who does he take after, his mother or his father? He takes after his father in appearance, but he is like his mother in character. He looks like his mother, but he takes after his father in character. Like his father, he is tall and handsome. What does he like? He likes ice cream and chocolate. She likes apples and oranges. She likes modern music. He likes old movies and classical music. She likes to read. He likes to play with his dog. What are you interested in? I’m interested in medicine. He is interested in politics. She is interested in history. I’m interested in sports. I’m into computers. I’m a movie fan. I like rock music. Other related words Note: Some of the words below are slang words. Use with caution. Примечание: Некоторые слова ниже из сленга. Употребляйте осмотрительно. a bookworm, a history buff, a sports fan, a music fan, a movie fan, a TV addict; a computer whiz kid, a computer freak, a number-cruncher; a fashion-monger, a fashion plate, a dandy; a junk collector, a pack rat, a miser, a squanderer; a homebody, a couch potato, lazybones, a workaholic, a Jack of all trades; an adventurer, a thrill seeker, an oddball, a weirdo; a prude, a hypocrite, a chronic liar, a gambler, a smooth operator, a city slicker, a simpleton; a superachiever, an underachiever, a winner, a loser, a tough guy, a softy; a woman-chaser, a womanizer, a lady’s man / a ladies’ man, a lady-killer; a black sheep, a scapegoat, a scarecrow, a white crow, a night owl. Weight and Height Weight 1 pound (lb.) = 0.4536 kilograms (kg) He weighs 170 pounds. (Pronounced as „one hundred and seventy pounds” or „one hundred seventy pounds”.) He weighs 77 kilograms. (Pronounced as „seventy-seven kilograms”.) Her weight is 132 pounds. (one hundred thirty-two pounds) Her weight is 59.9 kilograms. (fifty-nine point nine kilograms) Her weight is about 60 kilograms. (sixty kilograms) Height 1 inch (in.) = 2.54 centimeters (cm) 1 foot (ft.) = 12 in. = 30.48 cm = 0.3048 m He is six feet tall. He is 183 centimeters tall. (one hundred eighty-three centimeters) She is five feet three inches tall. She is five foot three. She is 160 centimeters tall. (one hundred sixty centimeters) Her 12-year-old son is about 5 feet tall and weighs about 88 pounds. (eighty-eight pounds) Her twelve-year-old son is about a hundred and fifty centimeters tall and weighs about forty kilograms.
Watch Cities and towns city; town; capital; metropolis; village; hamlet; settlement; port; resort; health resort; seaside resort; winter resort; mountain resort; ski resort; big city; large city; small town; densely populated city; center; downtown; suburb; outskirts; slums; ghetto; region; district; neighborhood; borough; city block; city limits; residential district (area; neighborhood; quarter); industrial quarter; place; location; locality; vicinity; environment; surroundings; Streets and roads street; road; avenue; alley; boulevard; lane; drive; route; thoroughfare; main street; side street; back street; bystreet; one-way street; blind alley; main road; side road; back road; byroad; byway; bypass; country road; dirt road; paved road; highway; speedway; expressway; freeway; parkway; causeway; turnpike; limited-access road; toll road; two-lane road; four-lane road; autobahn; motorway; superhighway; Parts of streets and roads fast lane; left lane; slow lane; right lane; breakdown lane; bicycle lane; bicycle path; intersection; crossroads; junction; traffic light; red light; yellow light; green light; pedestrian crossing; zebra crossing; crosswalk; sidewalk; pavement; walkway; street corner; overpass; underpass; traffic circle; bridge; tunnel; Bus stop, parking lot, etc. bus stop; bus terminal; taxi stop; subway station; subway entrance; parking lot; garage; curb parking; to park at the curb; parking meter; train station; railroad station; railway station; airport; gas station; filling station; petrol station; Houses, buildings house; small house; large house; brick house; brownstone; wooden house; apartment house; block of flats (BrE); residential building; three-story house; four-storied house; multistory building; row house; cottage; cabin; bungalow; hut; lodge; mansion; villa; castle; palace; town house; country house; summer house; farmhouse; ranch house; office building; concrete-steel building; glass building; brick building; skyscraper; high rise; tower; elevator building; walk-up building; Miscellaneous buildings school; hospital; supermarket; department store; restaurant; hotel; bank; post office; museum; library; movie theater; factory; plant; police department; fire department; city hall; town hall; prison; jail; church; cathedral; temple; chapel; mosque; synagogue; Places of interest and entertainment sightseeing places; sights; tourist attractions; cultural attractions; showplaces; historical places; historic places; historical sites; historic sites; historic landmarks; art gallery; art museum; museum of art; science museum; exhibition; showroom; monument; memorial; square; plaza; park; garden; botanical garden; zoo; zoological garden; aviary; wildlife refuge; nature reserve; planetarium; aquarium; marine park; water park; aquapark; amusement park; concert hall; opera house; theater; movie theater; cinema; circus; dancing hall; disco; discotheque; night club; Tourist information places tourist information center; visitors center; visitors bureau; travel agency; tourist agency; Hotels and other accommodation hotel; inn; motel; lodge; youth hostel; residential hotel; lodging; lodgings; lodging house; rooming house; guesthouse (guest house); country inn; camping area; campsite; boardinghouse (boarding house); bed and board; bed and breakfast; deluxe hotel; luxury hotel; five-star hotel; four-star hotel; three-star hotel; downtown hotel; small hotel; large hotel; old hotel; rundown hotel; expensive hotel; moderate hotel; inexpensive hotel; cheap hotel; Restaurants, bars restaurant; cafeteria; cafe; lunchroom; luncheonette; coffee shop; tearoom; snack bar; eating place; eating house; diner; eatery; canteen; grillroom; pizzeria; milk bar; French restaurant; Italian restaurant; Chinese restaurant; Mexican restaurant; seafood restaurant; fish restaurant; fast food restaurant (fast-food restaurant); hotel restaurant; a la carte restaurant; self-service restaurant; family restaurant; bar; barroom; cocktail lounge; pub; tavern; saloon; Banks bank; central bank; savings bank; commercial bank; nearest bank; ATM (automatic teller machine); cash machine; currency exchange; electronic banking; online banking; Shopping places shopping center; shopping mall; department store; shoe store; computer store; bookstore; supermarket; grocery store; food store; food market; farmers’ market; bakery; fair; annual fair; book fair; trade fair; trade center; market; market place; flower market; flea market; bazaar; newsstand; fruit stand; street vendor; Sports facilities health club; fitness center; gym; tennis club; golf club; country club; sports area; recreation area; sports ground; playground; campground; football ground; basketball ground; tennis court; golf course; swimming pool; skating rink; boxing ring; wrestling ring; racetrack; racecourse; football field; stadium; sports arena; Health facilities hospital; clinic; polyclinic; health center; hospital clinic; dental clinic; the dentist’s; outpatient clinic; outpatients’ department; ambulatory surgical center; surgery department; waiting room; consulting room; hospital ward; emergency room; operating room; the ambulance; pharmacy; drugstore; Educational facilities kindergarten; nursery school; elementary school; high school; school; college; institute; university; academy; medical school; law school; business school; vocational school; trade school; music school; library; campus; dormitory; day-care center; day camp; summer camp; Hair care, skin care hair salon; hairdresser’s; barber shop; beauty parlor; beauty salon; beauty shop; massage parlor; solarium; Rentals rental agency; car rental; bicycle rental; video rental; real estate agency; house rental; apartment rental; Services and repair laundry; laundromat; dry cleaner’s; automobile repair shop; auto repair shop; car repair shop; service station; garage; bicycle repair shop; computer repair shop; home repair shop; locksmith’s shop. Related materials in the section Vocabulary: British and American Vocabulary; Stores and Consumer Goods; Food Products Main List. good, great, nice, fine, lovely, beautiful, wonderful, excellent, gorgeous, fair, pleasant; bad, awful, terrible, nasty, lousy, foul, rotten, miserable, unpleasant, dull; sunny, warm, hot, mild, cool, chilly, cold, freezing, icy, frosty; rainy, wet, humid, dry, arid, frigid; foggy, smoggy, misty; windy, stormy, breezy, windless, calm, still; a spell of good weather; a two-day spell of sunny weather; a spell of rainy weather; Sky: cloudy, overcast, cloudless, clear, bright, blue, gray (BrE grey), dark; a patch of blue sky. Examples The weather is nice today. The weather is good today. The weather is awful today. Nice weather, isn’t it? Terrible weather, isn’t it? It’s a nice day, isn’t it? It’s warm today. It’s hot today. It’s cold today. It is cold and windy. It’s humid. It’s hot and humid. It’s cloudy, but there’s no rain. It’s raining. It’s raining hard. It’s snowing. It’s snowing hard. I wish it would stop raining. Weather phenomena and related words Sunshine warm sun, hot sun, blazing sun, sunshine, sunlight, sunrays, sunbeams; bright sunshine, bright sunlight; a patch of sunlight; daylight, moonlight; sunrise, sunset, day, night, dawn, morning, noon, afternoon, evening, twilight, nightfall, midnight; Wind strong wind, high wind, light wind, cold wind, warm wind, brisk wind, fresh wind; a gust of wind; easterly wind, northerly wind, southerly wind, westerly wind; wind, breeze, hurricane, windstorm, whirlwind, tornado, typhoon, dust storm, sandstorm, tropical storm; Rain heavy rain, pouring rain, steady rain, constant rain, cold rain, warm rain, light rain, gentle rain; rain, rainfall, shower, downpour, deluge, rainstorm, drizzle, hail, sleet; a drop of rain, a droplet, a raindrop; rainbow; Fog fog, mist, haze, smog, dew; thick fog, dense fog, heavy fog, patchy fog; a blanket of fog; Thunder and lightning thunderstorm, thunder, a clap of thunder, a thunderclap, a bolt of thunder, a thunderbolt; lightning, a flash of lightning, a bright flash of lightning, a bolt of lightning; Snow heavy snow, deep snow, fresh snow, light snow, wet snow, falling snow, melting snow; snow, snowfall, snowstorm, blizzard, frost; snowflake, snowdrift / snowbank, ice, icicle; Seasons winter, spring, summer, autumn; fall (AmE); early spring, late autumn; Indian summer; springtime, summertime, wintertime; spring season, summer season, fall season, winter season; dry season, wet season, rainy season, cold season, warm season; Disasters earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, avalanche, hurricane; flood, deluge, tidal wave, tsunami, drought, fire. Other words and phrases Nature, environment, ecology, air pollution, water pollution, acid rain, the cutting down of forests; industrial waste, chemical waste, toxic waste, nuclear waste; the ozone hole, the greenhouse effect, global warming. Weather reports weather report, weather forecast, weather man, thermometer, barometer; climate, temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, three inches of snow. Sample weather reports Mainly cloudy with a little drizzle. Slight chance of a rain shower. Northeastern wind at 5 to 10 mph. Temperature below normal in the north and central regions. Near normal for southern regions. Maximum temperature 10°C. Cold and dry in the morning, warmer later. Windy and increasingly cloudy with sunny periods. Rain expected at night, with 40 percent chance of showers. Maximum 58 degrees F (14°C) in the afternoon. Strong wind expected Monday, with temperature in low 50s. Sunny in the morning with cloudy intervals later in the day. Chance of rain 50%. Isolated thunderstorms possible. Highs in the mid 80s and lows in the upper 60s. Heat wave expected. Temperature 97–98 degrees F (36–37 degrees C) to 101–103 degrees F (38–39 degrees C) for the next three days. High atmospheric pressure. TEMPERATURE Fahrenheit and Celsius Fahrenheit is used in the U.S.; Celsius is used in the other English-speaking countries. Freezing point of water: 32 degrees Fahrenheit, or 0 degrees Celsius. Boiling point of water: 212 degrees Fahrenheit, or 100 degrees Celsius. Room temperature: 65–68 degrees Fahrenheit, or 18–20 degrees Celsius. Nice warm weather: 72–81 degrees Fahrenheit, or 22–27 degrees Celsius. Cold frosty weather: 0 degrees Fahrenheit, or –18 degrees Celsius. Normal body temperature (in the mouth): 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, or 37 degrees Celsius. Normal body temperature (in the armpit): 97.9 degrees Fahrenheit, or 36.6 degrees Celsius. Illness: 100–104 degrees Fahrenheit, or 38–40 degrees Celsius. Oven: 300°F is 149°C; 350°F is 177°C; 400°F is 204°C; 500°F is 260°C. Some more equivalents Note: A few figures below have been rounded off to the nearest whole number. –40 degrees Fahrenheit is –40 degrees Celsius; –22 degrees Fahrenheit is –30 degrees Celsius; –15 degrees Fahrenheit is –26 degrees Celsius; –10 degrees Fahrenheit is –23 degrees Celsius; –4 degrees Fahrenheit is –20 degrees Celsius; 0 degrees Fahrenheit is –18 degrees Celsius; 5 degrees Fahrenheit is –15 degrees Celsius; 10 degrees Fahrenheit is –12 degrees Celsius; 20 degrees Fahrenheit is –7 degrees Celsius; 25 degrees Fahrenheit is –4 degrees Celsius; 32 degrees Fahrenheit is 0 degrees Celsius; 35 degrees Fahrenheit is 2 degrees Celsius; 41 degrees Fahrenheit is 5 degrees Celsius; 50 degrees Fahrenheit is 10 degrees Celsius; 61 degrees Fahrenheit is 16 degrees Celsius; 65 degrees Fahrenheit is 18 degrees Celsius; 70 degrees Fahrenheit is 21 degrees Celsius; 75 degrees Fahrenheit is 24 degrees Celsius; 81 degrees Fahrenheit is 27 degrees Celsius; 86 degrees Fahrenheit is 30 degrees Celsius; 90 degrees Fahrenheit is 32 degrees Celsius; 95 degrees Fahrenheit is 35 degrees Celsius; 97.9 degrees Fahrenheit is 36.6 degrees Celsius; 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit is 37 degrees Celsius; 100 degrees Fahrenheit is 37.8 degrees Celsius; 101 degrees Fahrenheit is 38.3 degrees Celsius; 102 degrees Fahrenheit is 38.9 degrees Celsius; 103 degrees Fahrenheit is 39.4 degrees Celsius; 104 degrees Fahrenheit is 40 degrees Celsius; 110 degrees Fahrenheit is 43 degrees Celsius; 122 degrees Fahrenheit is 50 degrees Celsius; 140 degrees Fahrenheit is 60 degrees Celsius; 158 degrees Fahrenheit is 70 degrees Celsius; 176 degrees Fahrenheit is 80 degrees Celsius; 194 degrees Fahrenheit is 90 degrees Celsius; 212 degrees Fahrenheit is 100 degrees Celsius. Examples Water boils at 212°F. (at two hundred twelve degrees Fahrenheit) Water freezes at 0°C. (at zero degrees Celsius) The temperature outside is 18 degrees below zero. (eighteen) The temperature outside is minus 18 degrees. It’s cold outside. It is about three degrees above zero. It’s very hot outside. It’s about thirty-five degrees. It’s very hot outside. It’s about ninety-five degrees. My temperature is normal. My temperature is 36.6 degrees. (thirty-six point six) My temperature is normal. It’s 98.6 degrees. (ninety-eight point six) Clothes women’s clothes, men’s clothes, children’s clothes, baby clothes, sports clothes; women’s clothing, ladies’ clothing, men’s clothing, children’s clothing, sports clothing; winter clothes, winter clothing, summer clothes, casual clothes, formal clothes; expensive clothes, cheap clothes, nice clothes, shabby clothes; designer clothes, tailor-made clothes, handmade clothes, ready-made clothes; work clothes, working clothes, uniform, protective clothing; footwear, headgear, underwear, sportswear, swimwear, sleepwear; clothes, clothing, garments, wear, dress, outfit, attire, apparel; fashion, style, vogue, haute couture; Outer garments winter coat, warm coat, fur coat, sheepskin coat, storm coat, parka, snowsuit; coat, topcoat, overcoat, trench coat; raincoat, waterproof coat, slicker; leather jacket, bomber jacket, car coat; windbreaker, windcheater, sports jacket; Women’s clothes casual dress, formal dress; summer dress, woolen dress; cocktail dress, low-cut dress, evening dress, evening gown; business suit, pants suit (also, pant suit); uniform; button-through dress, pinafore dress, house dress; maternity wear, maternity dress; sweater, jersey, cardigan, jacket, vest; blouse, shirt, tunic, T-shirt, tank top, halter top; skirt, miniskirt, long skirt, pleated skirt, black skirt, culotte; pants, slacks, trousers, jeans, denims, shorts; swimsuit, swimming suit, bathing suit, bikini; jumpsuit, warm-up suit, training suit; Men’s clothes business suit, three-piece suit; tuxedo, tail coat, tails; black tie, white tie; trousers, slacks, jeans, denims, shorts; jacket, blazer, vest; sweater, turtleneck sweater, pullover, jumper, sweatshirt; shirt, polo shirt, T-shirt, tank top; warm-up suit, training suit, trunks; bathing trunks, swimming trunks, swim trunks, swim briefs; uniform, work clothes, overalls; Underwear, hosiery, sleepwear, robes underwear, lingerie; panties, bra, slip, half slip; briefs, underpants, T-shirt, undershirt; pantyhose, tights, leggings, stockings; socks, slouch socks, knee-high socks; pajamas (BrE: pyjamas), nightgown, sleepshirt; housecoat, robe, bathrobe, terry-cloth robe; Parts of clothes and their types collar, turtleneck collar, shawl collar, stand-up collar; V-neck, crew neck, collarless; sleeve, long sleeve, short sleeve, sleeveless; with long sleeves, with short sleeves; long-sleeved blouse, short-sleeved dress; padded shoulders, cuffs; pocket, front pocket, back pocket, side pocket; patch pocket, slash pocket, inside pocket; Fabric and material fabric, cloth, material, textile; cotton, linen, silk, wool, mohair; velvet, corduroy, denim, suede, leather; synthetics, nylon, polyester, Lycra, spandex; artificial fur, natural fur, mink, fox, sable, chinchilla, beaver, rabbit, astrakhan, sheepskin; knitted garments, knitwear, knitted cap (socks, sweater, etc.); embroidery, embroidered dress (blouse, shirt, etc.) Patterns and colors floral pattern, floral print, flower pattern, flower print; paisley print, animal print, bright print, all-over print; print skirt, print shirt, printed top, printed sleeves; striped, checked, checkered, plaid, polka dot, paisley; bright colors (BrE: colours), colorful, pastel colors, soft colors; light-blue, dark-green, bright-red, black-and-white; black, blue, brown, gray (BrE: grey), green, navy; orange, pink, purple, red, violet, white, yellow; Accessories bag, handbag, purse, clutch, briefcase, attache case; wallet, pocketbook, billfold, purse, coin purse; make-up kit, cosmetic case, shaving kit, travel kit; travel bag, duffel bag, sports bag, backpack, rucksack, tote bag; hand luggage, hand baggage, cabin bag, carry-on bag, flight bag; suitcase, garment bag, Pullman bag, trunk; belt, suspenders, straps, umbrella; button, zipper, buckle, clasp, Velcro; hat, fur hat, beret, cap, baseball cap, hood, headband, helmet; scarf, kerchief, silk scarf, woolen scarf, knitted scarf, muffler, shawl; gloves, mittens, earmuffs; handkerchief, sunglasses, glasses, contact lenses; necktie, tie, silk tie, bow tie; Shoes winter boots, ladies’ boots, hiking boots, rubber boots; walking shoes, Oxfords, loafers, moccasins; pumps, evening shoes, patent leather shoes, suede shoes; high-heel shoes, low-heel shoes, flat-heel shoes; sandals, open-toe shoes, slippers, mules, rubber thongs; tennis shoes, running shoes, sneakers, training shoes, trainers, athletic shoes; sole, insole, lining, cushioning, heel, tongue, buckle, shoe laces; Jewelry gold ring, diamond ring, engagement ring, wedding ring; necklace, bracelet, brooch, earrings; chain, pendant, charms; cuff links, tie tack, tie pin; watch, wristwatch; jewelry (BrE also: jewellery); precious stone, semiprecious stone, jewel, gem, gemstone; diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald, alexandrite, opal, topaz, pearl; Articles of clothing a piece of clothing, an article of clothing, an item of clothing; several articles / items / pieces of clothing; a set of clothes; a change of clothes; a pair of trousers, a pair of jeans, a pair of pants, a pair of shorts; a pair of gloves, a pair of mittens, a pair of socks; a pair of shoes, a pair of boots, a pair of slippers; Verbs to wear, to put on, to take off; to dress, to undress; to be dressed in a new suit; to button, to unbutton; to zip, to unzip; to tie, to untie; to lace, to unlace; to buckle, to unbuckle. Examples in sentences He put on a warm sweater He put on a white T-shirt and a pair of jeans. He put on his shoes, his coat and his hat. He put on his gloves. He took out a fresh change of clothes and put them on. He buttoned up his shirt. He buckled his belt. He laced up his boots. He tied the laces of his running shoes. He unbuttoned his coat. He unzipped his jacket. He took off his hat. He took off his shoes and put on his slippers. He is wearing a gray suit Maria is wearing a red dress and a black suede jacket today. Natasha is wearing a dark gray suit and a white blouse today. Anna is wearing a black skirt, a light-blue blouse, and high-heeled black shoes. There is a colorful scarf around her neck. Ella is wearing a skirt and a sweater. Tanya is dressed in a pants suit. Tom is wearing a dark-gray business suit, a white shirt and a gray silk tie. Anton prefers casual clothes. He usually wears blue jeans and a sweater to class. What are you wearing today? What do you usually wear to work? (Phrases for situations in a department store are listed in Shopping in the section Phrases.) (Фразы для ситуаций в универмаге
Watch chasy Types of selling places department store, specialty store, shopping center, shopping mall; retail store, retail outlet, wholesale store, warehouse, discount store, secondhand store; general store, convenience store, chain store, box store; hypermarket, supermarket, grocery store, food store; farmers’ market, marketplace, street market, flower market, flea market; street vendor, ice cream vendor, vending machine; fruit stand, hot-dog stand, newsstand, bookstall, kiosk. Specialty shops, specialty stores music store, record store, bookstore, bookshop, china store, china shop, gift shop; toy store, electrical appliances store, computer store, sporting goods store; shoe store, haberdashery store, variety store, hardware store, lumberyard; tobacco shop, cigarette store, pharmacy, drugstore, pet store. Some stores and their goods: Office supplies, office equipment, stationery store office equipment, computer, typewriter, printer, calculator; copier, photocopier, Xerox machine, paper shredder; stationery, writing paper, notepaper, A4 paper, drawing paper, carbon paper; lined paper, ruled paper, unlined paper, scratch paper, blotting paper; transparent paper, tracing paper, colored paper, brown paper, wrapping paper; a piece of paper, a scrap of paper, a pad of paper, a sheet of paper, a stack of paper; notebook, writing pad, notepad, scratch pad, clipboard, drawing board; file, folder, binder, organizer, filing cabinet, letter tray, envelopes; pen, ballpoint pen, ball pen, fountain pen, pencil, color marker, crayon; pencil sharpener, eraser, ruler, stencil, paper knife, penknife, paperweight; paper clip, stapler, tack, Scotch tape, adhesive tape, sticker, label; wastepaper, wastebasket, wastepaper basket. Cosmetics and toiletries toothpaste, toothbrush, dental floss, mouthwash; soap, shampoo, hair conditioner, hair dye, hairbrush, comb; gel, mousse, foam, oil, cream, powder, liquid, spray; deodorant, antiperspirant, perfume, toilet water, cologne, lotion, hand lotion; facial cream, moisturizing cream, cold cream, hand cream; paper tissues; shaver, razor, razor blades, electric razor, shaving cream, aftershave lotion; cosmetics, make-up, lipstick, lip gloss, rouge, blush, blusher, face powder; mascara, eyeliner, eye pencil, eye shadow, different shades of eye shadow; nail polish, nail polish remover, manicure scissors, nail clippers, nail file, emery board. Home appliances, household appliances lamps, lights, floor lamp, desk lamp, reading lamp, chandelier, light bulbs, flashlight; TV set, stereo system, radio, clock, alarm clock, sewing machine; air conditioner, fan, ventilator, heater, iron, hair drier, hair dryer; refrigerator, fridge, freezer, microwave oven, toaster; electric stove, electric range, oven, grill, pressure cooker, pressure saucepan; mixer, blender, food processor, meat grinder, meat chopper; electric kettle, coffee maker, coffee machine, percolator, coffee mill, coffee grinder; washing machine, dishwasher, vacuum cleaner, water heater, boiler. Kitchen utensils, housewares teapot, coffeepot, cup, saucer, mug, sugar bowl, creamer, kettle, jug, pitcher; china, porcelain, crystal, glassware, stemware, glasses; tableware, dish, platter, plate, dinner plate, salad plate, soup bowl, salad bowl; flatware, fork, dinner fork, salad fork, spoon, teaspoon, coffee spoon, tablespoon; cutlery, knife, cleaver, carving knife, carving fork, bread knife, fruit knife; breadboard, cutting board, tray, dish rack, dish drainer, container, canister; tablecloth, napkin, paper napkin, serviette, place mat, salt shaker, pepper shaker; cookware, pan, saucepan, casserole, pot, Dutch oven, frying pan, skillet, lid, handle; ladle, spatula, fish slice, tongs, can opener, tin opener, bottle opener, corkscrew; potato masher, rolling pin, eggbeater, whisk, grater, nutcracker, vegetable peeler; dipper, colander, strainer, funnel, kitchen scales, kitchen scissors, ice pick; dishtowel, tea towel, paper towel, dish holder, oven glove; garbage can, trash can, waste bin, dustbin. Furniture store table, dining table, kitchen table, desk, writing desk, writing table, computer table; tea table, coffee table, cocktail table, end table, side table; sofa, divan, couch, love seat, settee, armchair, club chair, upholstery, cushion; chair, rocking chair, office chair, swivel chair, folding chair, kitchen stool, bench; bed, queen bed, double bed, bunk bed, folding bed; bedstand, nightstand, night table, dressing table, vanity table, mirror; wardrobe, chest of drawers, dresser, bureau, wall unit, bookcase, bookshelf, shelves; sideboard, china closet, china cabinet, buffet, cupboard, kitchen cabinet, kitchen counter; carpet, rug, mat, bath mat, doormat. Other related words salesclerk, shop assistant, salesperson, salesman, saleswoman, salesgirl, shopkeeper; seller, buyer, shopper, customer, consumer, dealer, merchant, manufacturer; goods, commodities, merchandise, purchase, sale, trade, commerce; shopping bag, carrier bag, shopping cart, trolley. (Phrases for situations in a department store are listed in Shopping in the section Phrases.) (Фразы для ситуаций в универмаге даны в материале Shopping в разделе Phrases. Grain wheat, rye, oats, corn, rice; Grain products bakery goods, bread, rolls, cakes, cookies, pies; cereal, corn flakes, oat flakes, popcorn; pasta, macaroni, noodles, spaghetti; Bread white bread, whole-wheat bread, rye bread; Rolls, buns sesame roll, cinnamon roll, hamburger bun, hot dog bun; Cakes birthday cake, wedding cake, Christmas cake, chocolate cake, coffee cake, blueberry muffin; Cookies and crackers oatmeal cookie, chocolate cookie, crackers, biscuits, toast; Pastry apple pie, meat pie, pizza, doughnut; Meat and meat products beef, pork, veal, lamb; beef steak, roast beef, ground beef, hamburgers, pork chops, lamb chops; ham, bacon, sausage, hot dogs; Chicken, turkey whole chicken, chicken leg, drumstick, chicken breast, turkey breast; eggs; Fish and fish products salmon, cod, tuna, sole; fish steak, fish fillet, smoked fish, caviar; Seafood shrimp, crab, oysters; Dairy products milk, yogurt, cream, sour cream, butter; cottage cheese, cream cheese; Cheese Swiss cheese, Parmesan, Cheddar, Mozzarella, Roquefort, blue cheese; Ice cream ice cream, vanilla ice cream, chocolate ice cream; Fruit apple, pear, apricot, peach, nectarine, plum, grapes, cherry, sweet cherry; lemon, orange, grapefruit; banana, kiwi, pineapple; melon, watermelon; Berries strawberry, blueberry, cranberry, raspberry; Dried fruit dried apricots, raisins, figs, prunes, dates; Nuts hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, peanuts; Preserves strawberry jam, raspberry jam, cranberry jam, honey, maple syrup; Vegetables tomato, cucumber; onion, garlic, sweet pepper, hot pepper; cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, spinach; carrots, beets, potatoes, mushrooms; Peas, beans, corn peas, green peas, beans, string beans, kidney beans, corn; Herbs dill, parsley, mint; Fruit juice apple juice, orange juice, grapefruit juice, tomato juice; Beverages and drinks tea, coffee, milk, cocoa, hot chocolate, mineral water, soft drinks; Alcoholic drinks beer, red wine, white wine, champagne; vodka, cognac, brandy, whisky; cocktails; Sauces tomato sauce, ketchup, meat sauce, spaghetti sauce, hot sauce; Salad dressings Russian dressing, Italian dressing, French dressing, mayonnaise; Vegetable oils olive oil, corn oil; Spices pepper, salt, mustard; Sweets and chocolate sweets, caramels, chocolate candies, chocolate. Expressions of quantity A bag of: a bag of potatoes, a bag of oranges, a bag of potato chips; A bottle of: a bottle of mineral water, a bottle of red wine, two bottles of beer, a bottle of ketchup; A box of: a box of corn flakes, a box of crackers, a box of cookies, a box of chocolates, a box of matches; A can of: a can of green peas, a can of olives, a can of sardines, a can of beer; A carton of: a carton of milk, a carton of fruit juice, a carton of eggs, a carton of cigarettes (ten packs of cigarettes); A cup of: a cup of coffee, a cup of tea; A glass of: a glass of milk, a glass of beer, a glass of wine; A loaf of: a loaf of bread, two loaves of rye bread; A package of: a package of hot dogs, a package of sesame rolls, a package of cookies; A pack of: a pack of chewing gum, a pack of cigarettes; a six-pack of beer, a twelve-pack of mineral water; A piece of: a piece of bread, a piece of cake, a piece of pie; a piece of fruit; A pound of: a pound of cheese, a half pound of butter, two pounds of apples; A slice of: a slice of bread, a slice of pizza; a slice of meat; a slice of tomato; A teaspoon of: a teaspoon of instant coffee, a teaspoon of syrup; Sugar: a lump of sugar; two lumps of sugar; a cube of sugar; a teaspoon of sugar; One, two, five: two fish, four salmon steaks, five frozen hamburgers, three sesame buns, five oranges. (Phrases for buying food are listed in Shopping for Food in the section Phrases.) (Фразы для покупки еды даны в материале Shopping for Food store, supermarket, grocery store, convenience store, farmers’ market, food market; meat store (the butcher’s), fish store, bakery (the baker’s), dairy / dairy store; fruit store, fruit and vegetables store (the greengrocery / the greengrocer’s); deli store / deli (delicatessen), confectionery, liquor store; street vendor, ice cream vendor, fruit vendor; fruit stand, hot-dog stand, ice cream stand. The Supermarket bakery department / bakery section / baked goods; meat section, fresh meat counter, frozen meat counter; fish section / fish; poultry section / poultry; dairy section / dairy products; fruit and vegetables section / produce department / fruits and vegetables; frozen food section / frozen foods; canned goods section / canned goods; deli counter / deli section / deli; candy section / confectionery / confections / sweets / candy; beverages section, soft drinks section; pet food section; customer, shopper, salesperson, salesclerk; shopping cart, shopping basket; department / section, aisle, shelf, counter, refrigerator, freezer, scale; checkout counter, cashier, cash register, to pay, receipt, groceries; paper bag, brown bag, plastic bag. FOOD PRODUCTS Grain and grain products wheat, rye, oats, corn (maize), barley, buckwheat, rice; baked goods / bakery goods, bread, rolls, buns, cakes, cookies, pies; cereal, corn flakes, oat flakes, wheat flakes, rice flakes, muesli, popcorn; pasta, macaroni, noodles, spaghetti, vermicelli, angel-hair pasta, ravioli, dumplings; flour, dough, batter, cake mix; Baked goods Bread bread, white bread, whole wheat bread, rye bread, raisin bread, garlic bread, sourdough bread, French bread / French loaf, pita bread, tortilla; Rolls, buns roll, bread roll, sesame roll, poppy seed roll, cinnamon roll, hamburger bun, hot dog bun, crescent roll / croissant, bagel; Thin crispy breads cracker, biscuit, cookie, toast, breadstick, pretzel, hardtack / ship biscuit, wafer, waffle, crouton; Cakes cake, shortcake, fruitcake, strawberry shortcake, coffee cake, chocolate chip cake; blueberry muffin, raisin muffin, cupcake, brownie, oatmeal cookie, chocolate cookie, gingerbread; Cake cake, birthday cake, wedding cake, Christmas cake, chocolate cake, honey cake, cheesecake, layer cake, napoleon, sponge cake, torte; Pastry pastry, home-made pie, apple pie, blueberry pie, tart, mince pie, meat pie, knish, pizza, doughnut, English muffin, fritters, pancakes, waffles; Meat, poultry, fish Meat and meat products meat, beef, pork, veal, lamb, mutton; beef steak, roast beef, ground beef, hamburgers, cutlets, spare ribs, pork chops, lamb chops, veal cutlets; ham, bacon, pastrami, corned beef; sausage, salami, smoked sausage, Bologna; hot dogs, link sausages, frankfurters, wieners; Poultry poultry, chicken, turkey, goose, duck; whole chicken, chicken quarters, chicken leg, drumstick, chicken breast, turkey breast; eggs; Fish and fish products fish, salmon, trout, sturgeon, cod, sole, flatfish, pike, halibut, tuna, perch, sea bass, herring, eel, mackerel; fish steak, salmon steak, fish fillet, fillet of sole; smoked fish, salted fish, marinated herring, caviar; Seafood seafood, shrimp, prawns, crab, lobster, oysters, clams, shellfish, squid; Dairy products Milk and milk products milk, whole milk, skim milk, low-fat milk, nonfat milk, pasteurized milk, dry milk, condensed milk; yogurt, kefir, sour milk, buttermilk; cream, sour cream, butter; cottage cheese, farmers’ cheese, home-made cheese, cream cheese; Cheese cheese, Swiss cheese, Parmesan, Cheddar, Mozzarella, Roquefort, blue cheese; hard cheese, soft cheese, sharp cheese, mild cheese, smoked cheese, grated cheese, cheese spread; Ice cream ice cream, sundae, vanilla ice cream, chocolate ice cream, ice cream cone; Fruit, berries, dried fruit, nuts Fruit fresh fruit, apple, pear, apricot, peach, nectarine, plum, grapes, cherry, sweet cherry; lemon, lime, orange, tangerine, grapefruit; banana, kiwi, olive, pineapple, papaya, mango, avocado, coconut, persimmon, pomegranate; melon, watermelon; Berries berries, strawberry, blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, black currants, red currants, gooseberry, blackberry, whortleberry; Dried fruit dried fruit, dried apricots, raisins, figs, prunes, dates, candied fruit; Nuts and seeds nuts, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, chestnuts, peanuts; pistachio nuts, cashew nuts, pecans, macadamia nuts; apricot pits, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds; Preserves raspberry jam, cranberry jam, grape jelly, honey, maple syrup, peanut butter; Vegetables, beans, herbs Vegetables fresh vegetables, salad vegetables, canned vegetables, leaf vegetables / greens; tomato, cucumber, onion, garlic, carrot, beets, potato, sweet pepper, paprika, hot pepper, chili pepper, green onions / spring onions, leek, mushrooms; cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, collards, artichoke, lettuce, spinach, celery, asparagus, cress, watercress; eggplant, aubergine, squash, gourd, zucchini, pumpkin, turnip, radish, horse radish; pickled cucumbers / pickles, marinated cucumbers, sauerkraut, canned olives; Peas, beans, corn green peas, sweet peas, string beans, lima beans, kidney beans, black beans, soybeans, corn, sweet corn; Herbs dill, parsley, basil, coriander, mint; Fruit juice, beverages, drinks apple juice, orange juice, grapefruit juice, lemon juice, tomato juice, fresh fruit juice, frozen fruit juice; tea, green tea, black tea, tea with milk, iced tea, herbal tea, mint tea, Indian tea; coffee, instant coffee, espresso, cappuccino, decaffeinated coffee / decaf, coffee with milk, coffee with cream, half-and-half, black coffee; cocoa, hot chocolate, milkshake; Water, soft drinks mineral water, spring water, soft drinks, soda water, lemonade, cider, ginger ale; Alcoholic drinks / liquor beer, wine, red wine, white wine, champagne; vodka, cognac, brandy, whisky, liqueur; cocktail, punch; Sauces, salad dressings, vegetable oils, fats tomato sauce, ketchup, mushroom sauce, meat sauce, steak sauce, gravy, spaghetti sauce, hot sauce, chili sauce, barbecue sauce, sweet-and-sour sauce, soy sauce, garlic sauce, white sauce, dip sauce, apple sauce, cranberry sauce; salad dressing, Russian dressing, Italian dressing, French dressing, blue-cheese dressing, mayonnaise; vegetable oil, olive oil, corn oil, sunflower seed oil, sesame oil; margarine, grease, lard, animal fat, vegetable fat; Seasoning and spices seasoning, spices, flavoring, condiment, relish; pepper, ground pepper, whole pepper, red pepper, hot pepper, chili pepper, salt, mustard, garlic; herbs, seeds, bay leaf, basil, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, dill, parsley, nutmeg, mint, caraway, thyme, cardamom, tarragon, lemon peel, oregano, marjoram, rosemary; Sweets, candy, chocolate candies, sweets, caramels, mint drops, jelly beans, lollipop, bonbons; chocolates, chocolate candies, chocolate, chocolate bar, candy bar; taffy / toffee, fudge, marshmallow. Expressions of quantity A bag of: a bag of potatoes, a bag of oranges, a bag of dog food, a bag of potato chips; A bar of: a bar of chocolate, a candy bar, a bar of soap; A bottle of: a bottle of milk, a bottle of mineral water, a bottle of grapefruit juice, a bottle of red wine, two bottles of beer, a bottle of ketchup, a bottle of soy sauce; A bowl of: a bowl of breakfast cereal, a bowl of cornflakes, a bowl of salad, a bowl of soup; A box of: a box of spaghetti, a box of corn flakes, a box of crackers, a box of cookies, a box of chocolates, a box of matches; A bunch of: a bunch of parsley, a bunch of carrots, a bunch of radishes, a bunch of flowers; A can of: a can of green peas, a can of olives, a can of tomato soup, a can of sardines, a can of beer, a can of hair spray; A carton of: a carton of milk, a carton of fruit juice, a carton of eggs, a carton of cigarettes (ten packs of cigarettes); A container of: a container of sour cream, a container / a cup of yogurt; A cup of: a cup of coffee, a cup of tea, a cup of soup, a (plastic) cup of coffee; A dozen: a dozen eggs, two dozen eggs, a dozen oranges, a dozen bread rolls, a dozen hamburger buns; A gallon of: a gallon of milk, a gallon of spring water; A glass of: a glass of milk, a glass of beer, a glass of wine; A head of: a head of cabbage, a head of cauliflower, two heads of garlic; A jar of: a jar of coffee, a jar of mayonnaise, a jar of raspberry jam, a jar of pickles; A loaf of: a loaf of bread, a loaf of French bread, two loaves of rye bread; A mug of: a mug of beer, a mug of coffee; A package of: a package of hot dogs, a package of chicken legs, a package of sesame rolls, a package of cookies, a package of cottage cheese, a package of popcorn, a package of beans, a package of candies; A pack of: a pack of chewing gum, a pack of cigarettes, a pack of cards; a six-pack of beer, a twelve-pack of mineral water, a twin pack; A piece of: a piece of bread, a piece of cake, a piece of pie, a piece of fruit; A pint of: a pint of blueberries, a pint of cream, a pint of beer; A pound of: a pound of meat, three pounds of ground beef, a pound of cheese, a half pound of butter, two pounds of tomatoes; A quart of: a quart of milk, a quart of apple juice, two quarts of orange juice; A roll of: a roll of toilet paper, a roll of paper towels, a roll of foil, a roll of film; A slice of: a slice of bread, a slice of pie, a slice of pizza, a slice of cheese, a slice of meat; a slice of tomato; A teaspoon of: a teaspoon of instant coffee, a teaspoon of syrup; a tablespoon of salt; Sugar: a lump of sugar; two lumps of sugar; a cube of sugar; a teaspoon of sugar; a spoonful of sugar; A tube of: a tube of mustard, a tube of hand cream, a tube of shampoo, a tube of toothpaste; One, two, five: two fish, four salmon steaks, five frozen hamburgers, three cinnamon buns, six oranges. Weight 1 ounce (oz.) = 28.35 grams (g) 1 pound (lb.) = 16 ounces = 453.6 grams 2.2 pounds = 1 kilogram (kg) Liquid 1 pint (pt.) = 0.473 liters (L, l) 1 quart (qt.) = 2 pints = 0.946 liters 1 gallon (gal.) = 4 quarts = 3.785 liters (Phrases for buying food are listed in Shopping for Food. Phrases for ordering food in a restaurant are listed in At a Restaurant in the section Phrases.) (Фразы для покупки еды даны в материале Shopping for Food. Фразы для заказа еды в ресторане даны в материале At a Restaurant в разделе Phrases.
hen in compound adjectives of color A two-word compound adjective denoting color is usually hyphenated before a noun: a light-gray coat; a grayish-green car. After a verb, such adjectives are usually written without a hyphen: Her coat is light gray. His car is grayish green. Adjectives of color can function as nouns: a light gray; a reddish brown. There is no hyphen in such combinations. One-word coordinate adjectives before a noun are written without a hyphen: a bright, deep, brilliant red color. Compound adjectives in the list below are hyphenated in order to show their spelling as attributes before nouns. Compound adjectives denoting color may be written without a hyphen in the position before a noun if the meaning is clear: a dark brown jacket; a bluish green dress. But a hyphen is necessary in cases where misunderstanding may occur. Compare: a light-brown jacket (color: light-brown) – a light brown jacket (weight or color? not heavy or not dark?). (Brief description of the use of the hyphen in compound adjectives can be found in Stress in Compound Words in the section Phonetics.) Дефис в сложных прилагательных цвета Сложное прилагательное, обозначающее цвет, обычно пишется через дефис перед существительным: a light-gray coat; a grayish-green car. После глагола, такие прилагательные обычно пишутся без дефиса: Her coat is light gray. His car is grayish green. Прилагательные цвета могут функционировать как существительные: a light gray – светлый серый цвет; a reddish brown – красноватый коричневый цвет. В таких сочетаниях нет дефиса. Простые однородные прилагательные перед существительным пишутся без дефиса: a bright, deep, brilliant red color – яркий, густой, блестящий красный цвет. Сложные прилагательные в списке ниже даны с дефисом, чтобы показать их написание как определений перед существительными. Сложные прилагательные, обозначающие цвета, могут быть написаны без дефиса в положении перед существительным, если значение ясно: a dark brown jacket – темно-коричневая куртка; a bluish green dress – голубовато-зеленое платье. Но дефис необходим в случаях, где может возникнуть неправильное понимание. Сравните: a light-brown jacket (цвет: светло-коричневый) – a light brown jacket (вес или цвет? легкий или светлый?). (Краткое описание употребления дефиса в сложных прилагательных можно найти в статье Stress in Compound Words в разделе Phonetics.) Names of colors Black, blue, brown, gray (grey), green, orange, pink, purple, red, violet, white, yellow are the most frequently used names of colors. Black black – черный; deep-black – насыщенный черный, густой черный; black-and-white – черно-белый; black-and-tan – черный с рыжими подпалинами; jet-black – густой черный; coal-black – угольно-черный; pitch-black – крайне черный, крайне темный; inky, ink-black – чернильно-черного цвета; Blue blue – синий, голубой; light-blue – светло-синий, голубой; dark-blue – темно-синий, темно-голубой; deep-blue – темно-синий; gray-blue – серо-голубой; grayish-blue – серовато-голубой; greenish-blue – зеленовато-синий, зеленовато-голубой; sky-blue – небесно-голубой; pastel-blue – нежно-голубой, пастельно-голубой; baby-blue – светло-голубой, нежно-голубой; Brown brown – коричневый; light-brown – светло-коричневый; dark-brown – темно-коричневый; red-brown – красно-коричневый; reddish-brown – красновато-коричневый, бурый; purplish-brown – пурпурно-коричневый; yellowish-brown – желтовато-коричневый; golden-brown – золотисто-коричневый; chestnut-brown – каштановый, каштаново-коричневый; Gray gray – серый; gray – седой (о волосах); grayish – сероватый; light-gray – светло-серый; dark-gray – темно-серый; blue-gray – сине-серый; bluish-gray – синевато-серый, голубовато-серый; greenish-gray – зеленовато-серый; pearl-gray – бледный голубовато-серый; ash-gray – пепельно-серый; dirty gray – грязный серый; Green green – зеленый; greenish – зеленоватый; light-green – светло-зеленый; bright-green – ярко-зеленый; dark-green – темно-зеленый; deep-green – темно-зеленый; gray-green – серо-зеленый; grayish-green – серовато-зеленый; blue-green – сине-зеленый; bluish-green – синевато-зеленый, голубовато-зеленый; yellow-green – желто-зеленый; yellowish-green – желтовато-зеленый; apple-green – светло-зеленый; Orange orange – оранжевый; light-orange – светло-оранжевый; dark-orange – темно-оранжевый; red-orange – красно-оранжевый; reddish-orange – красновато-оранжевый; yellow-orange – желто-оранжевый; carrot-orange – морковно-оранжевый; Pink pink – розовый; pinkish – розоватый; light-pink – светло-розовый; dark-pink – темно-розовый; deep-pink – темно-розовый; reddish-pink – красновато-розовый; yellowish-pink – желтовато-розовый; rose-pink – бледно-розовый; pale pink – бледно-розовый; hot pink – ярко-розовый; Purple purple – пурпурный, багряный, фиолетовый, лиловый, сиреневый; deep-purple – темно-пурпурный; pale-purple – бледно-лиловый, бледно-пурпурный; reddish-purple – красновато-пурпурный; blackish-purple – черно-пурпурный; bluish-purple – синевато-пурпурный; aubergine-purple – фиолетово-пурпурный; Red red – красный; рыжий (о волосах); reddish – красноватый; bright-red – ярко-красный; dark-red – темно-красный; deep-red – темно-красный; purple-red – пурпурно-красный; purplish-red – пурпурно-красный; brownish-red – коричневато-красный; orange-red – оранжево-красный; rose-red – цвета красной розы; scarlet-red – алый красный; brick-red – кирпично-красный; Violet violet – фиолетовый, фиалковый, темно-лиловый; light-violet – светло-фиолетовый; dark-violet – темно-фиолетовый; deep-violet – темно-фиолетовый; bright-violet – ярко-фиолетовый; White white – белый; whitish – беловатый; blue-white – сине-белый; bluish-white – голубовато-белый; grayish-white – серовато-белый; snow-white – белоснежный; lily-white – чисто-белый, лилейный; milk-white – молочно-белый, голубовато-белый; off-white – не чисто-белый, с оттенком; Yellow yellow – желтый; yellowish – желтоватый; light-yellow – светло-желтый; pale-yellow – бледно-желтый; dark-yellow – темно-желтый; pinkish-yellow – розовато-желтый; orange-yellow – оранжево-желтый; reddish-yellow – красновато-желтый; brownish-yellow – коричневато-желтый; greenish-yellow – зеленовато-желтый; straw-yellow – соломенно-желтый; Other colors Note: The word „colored” is often used as the second component of compound adjectives of color (for example, cherry-colored, coffee-colored, amber-colored) in order to indicate clearly that the color is meant, not the content, material, shape or taste. Compare these adjectives: almond; almond-shaped; almond-colored. Примечание: Слово „colored” часто используется как второй компонент сложных прилагательных цвета (например, cherry-colored, coffee-colored, amber-colored) для того, чтобы указать ясно, что имеется в виду цвет, а не содержание, материал, форма или вкус. Сравните эти прилагательные: almond (миндальный, миндалевидный, цвета миндаля); almond-shaped (миндалевидный); almond-colored (цвета миндаля). almond, almond-colored – цвета миндаля, светлый желтовато-коричневый, светло-коричневый; amber, amber-colored – янтарный, желтый, оранжево-желтый, красновато-желтый; apricot, apricot-colored – абрикосовый, розовато-желтый; aqua; aqua-blue; aqua-green – цвет воды; бледный зеленовато-голубой; бледный голубовато-зеленый; aquamarine – аквамариновый, зеленовато-голубой, голубовато-зеленый, цвета морской волны; ashen, ash-colored – пепельный, пепельного цвета, мертвенно-бледный; aubergine – баклажанового цвета, темно-фиолетовый; auburn – золотисто-коричневый, золотисто-каштановый, красновато-коричневый, рыжеватый; azure – лазурный, небесно-голубой, чисто-голубой; beige – бежевый, бледный светло-коричневый, светло-серый с коричневатым оттенком; blond – светлый, светловолосый, русый, белокурый (обычно о волосах); brass, brassy – цвета латуни, цвета меди; bronze, bronze-colored – бронзовый, красновато-коричневый; burgundy – бордовый, темно-бордовый; canary, canary-yellow – канареечного цвета, светло-желтый; caramel, caramel-colored – светло-коричневый, цвета жженого сахара; cardinal, cardinal-red – ярко-красный, пунцовый, насыщенный темно-красный; carmine – пунцовый, карминный, малиново-красный; carrot-colored – морковного цвета; cerise – светло-вишневый; вишнево-красный; cerulean – небесно-голубой, лазурный; cherry, cherry-colored – вишневый, ярко-красный; chestnut, chestnut-colored – каштановый, каштанового цвета; chocolate, chocolate-colored – шоколадный, шоколадного цвета, средне-коричневый, темно-коричневый; cocoa, cocoa-colored – цвет какао, светло-шоколадный; coffee, coffee-colored – цвета кофе с молоком, средне-коричневый; кофейного цвета, темно-коричневый; copper, coppery, copper-colored – медный, медно-красный, цвета меди; coral, coral-red – кораллового цвета, желтовато-красный, кораллово-красный; corn-colored – бледно-желтый, золотистый, цвета спелой кукурузы; cream, cream-colored – кремовый, кремового цвета; crimson – малиновый, багровый, пунцовый, темно-красный; cyan, cyan-blue – светлый зеленовато-голубой, голубовато-зеленый; emerald, emerald-green – изумрудный, изумрудно-зеленый; fawn, fawn-colored – желтовато-коричневый; fuchsia – пурпурно-красный, розовато-пурпурный; golden, gold, gold-colored – золотистый, блестящий желтый, золотой, цвета золота; hazel – светло-коричневый, красновато-коричневый; henna – красновато-коричневый; (henna – хна; henna-dyed hair – окрашенные хной волосы); honey-colored – цвета меда; indigo, indigo-blue – темно-синий, сине-фиолетовый; ivory, ivory-colored, ivory-white – цвета слоновой кости, кремово-белый, желтовато-белый; jade, jade-colored – желтовато-зеленый, нефритовый; khaki, khaki-colored – цвета хаки, защитного цвета; lavender, lavender-colored – светло-сиреневый, бледно-лиловый, цвета лаванды; lemon, lemon-yellow – светло-желтый, лимонного цвета, лимонно-желтый; lilac – сиреневый, лиловый, цветом как цветки сирени; lime, lime-colored, lime-green – зеленый, желтовато-зеленый; magenta – красновато-лиловый, красновато-пурпурный, пурпурно-красный; mahogany – цвет красного дерева, красновато-коричневый; maroon – темный коричневато-красный, темно-бордовый; mauve – розовато-лиловый, розовато-сиреневый; metallic – с металлическим блеском, например: metallic gray, metallic green, metallic blue; mocha – шоколадного цвета, кофейного цвета, цвета мокко; navy, navy-blue – синий, темно-синий; ocher (ochre), ocher-colored – цвета охры, желтый разных оттенков (бледно-желтый, оранжево-желтый, красновато-желтый); olive, olive-colored, olive-green – оливковый, оливково-зеленый, желтовато-зеленый, коричневато-зеленый; peach, peach-colored, peachy – персиковый, светлый розовато-желтый; pearly – жемчужный, жемчужного цвета; platinum – цвета платины, светло-серый с металлическим блеском; plum, plum-colored – сливового цвета, темно-фиолетовый; puce – темно-красный, пурпурно-коричневый; raspberry – малиновый; redwood – цвет красного дерева; rose, rose-colored, rosy – розовый, розово-красный; ruby, ruby-colored – рубиновый, темно-красный; russet – желтовато-коричневый, светло-коричневый, красновато-коричневый; rust, rust-colored, rusty – цвета ржавчины, красновато-желтый, красновато-коричневый; saffron, saffron-yellow – оранжево-желтый, желто-оранжевый, шафранно-желтый; salmon, salmon-colored, salmon-pink – светлый желтовато-розовый, цвета лососины; sand-colored, sandy – песочного цвета, рыжеватый; scarlet – алый, ярко-красный; sienna – желто-коричневый; красновато-коричневый; (sienna – краска сиена) silver, silvery – серебряный, серебристый; slate, slate-colored – тусклый темный синевато-серый; straw-colored – бледно-желтый, цвета соломы, соломенного цвета; tan – цвета загара, желтовато-коричневый; taupe – темный коричневато-серый; tawny – темный желтовато-коричневый, смуглый; teal, teal-blue – темный зеленовато-синий, темный серовато-синий; terra-cotta – терракотового цвета, коричневато-оранжевый, коричнево-красный; turquoise, turquoise-blue – бирюзовый, зеленовато-голубой, голубовато-зеленый; ultramarine – ультрамариновый, ярко-синий; vermilion – ярко-красный, блестящий алый красный, пунцово-красный; wheat-colored – цвета спелой пшеницы; wine, wine-colored – темно-красный, темно-бордовый, цвета красного вина. Related vocabulary The colors of the rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet. primary colors – основные цвета, первичные цвета; secondary colors – вторичные цвета, составные цвета; dark colors – темные цвета; light colors – светлые цвета; bright color – яркий цвет; deep color – густой, темный, насыщенный цвет; rich color – густой, интенсивный, яркий цвет; soft color – мягкий, нежный, неяркий цвет; pale color – бледный, неяркий цвет; pastel color – пастельный, неяркий цвет; pastel shade – пастельный оттенок; dull color – тусклый, неяркий цвет; faded color – потускневший, выцветший, блеклый цвет; discolored – обесцвеченный, выцветший; quiet colors – спокойные цвета; loud colors – кричащие цвета; warm colors – теплые цвета; cold colors – холодные цвета; colorful – яркий, красочный, разноцветный; colorless – бесцветный, бледный, неинтересный; multicolor, multicolored – многоцветный. Colors, paints, painting, picture paint – краска; to paint – писать красками, заниматься живописью; красить (красками, кистью), окрашивать; to paint a picture – написать картину; изображать, описывать (события), нарисовать картину (происходящего); watercolor – акварельная краска, акварель; картина, написанная акварельными красками; oil color, oil paint – масляная краска; oil painting – картина, написанная масляными красками; to paint in watercolors – писать акварельными красками; to paint in oils – писать маслом, писать масляными красками; painting – живопись; картина, изображение; the art of painting – искусство живописи; picture – картина, рисунок, портрет, изображение, образ, фотография, фильм; drawing – рисунок, чертеж; рисование, черчение; sketch – эскиз, набросок, зарисовка; краткий обзор, очерк; artist – художник, артист; painter – художник, маляр; easel – мольберт; canvas – холст, полотно; brush – кисть; palette – палитра. Color, shade, hue, tinge, tint, dye color (colour) – цвет, тон, оттенок, расцветка, колорит, краска; to color – красить, окрашивать, расцвечивать, раскрашивать, принимать окраску; shade – оттенок, тон, тень; various shades of green – различные оттенки зеленого; a shade of brown – оттенок коричневого; a delicate shade of blue – мягкий оттенок голубого; a lighter shade of violet – более светлый оттенок фиолетового; hue – оттенок, тон, цвет; reddish hue – красноватый тон / оттенок; pale hues – бледные тона; all the hues of the rainbow – все цвета радуги; tinge – легкая окраска, примесь, тон, оттенок; brown with a tinge of red – коричневый с примесью / оттенком красного; to tinge – слегка окрашивать, придавать оттенок; tint – тон, оттенок, краска; to tint – придавать оттенок, подкрашивать, подцвечивать, тонировать; She tinted her hair red. – Она подкрасила / придала волосам рыжий оттенок / оттенок красного. dye – краска, краситель, красящее вещество, окраска, цвет; to dye – красить, окрашивать, прокрашивать; She dyed her hair red. – Она окрасила волосы в рыжий цвет. Note: Degrees of comparison of adjectives Adjectives denoting color form the comparative degree and the superlative degree in the same way as other adjectives: black – blacker – the blackest; blue – bluer – the bluest; orange – more orange – the most orange. Прилагательные, обозначающие цвет, образуют сравнительную и превосходную степени сравнения так же, как другие прилагательные: black – blacker – the blackest; blue – bluer – the bluest; orange – more orange – the most orange. Образование степеней сравнения прилагательных, включая прилагательные, обозначающие цвета, описано на русском языке в ответе на вопрос посетителя Елена (от 17.12.09) в подразделе Messages about Grammar раздела Messages. (Можно найти в поиске по сайту по фразам Степени сравнения прилагательных или Degrees of comparison of adjectives.) Посмотрите также материал Degrees Introductory notes Вводные замечания English adjectives usually have several meanings. Besides, adjectives usually have a number of synonyms and antonyms. Английские прилагательные обычно имеют несколько значений. Кроме того, прилагательные обычно имеют ряд синонимов и антонимов. Adjectives may be synonymous in one meaning but different in another, and their use may differ in this or that situation. It is better to repeat a simple, familiar word than to use a synonym that is not very clear to you. Прилагательные могут быть синонимичны в одном значении, но различны в другом, и их употребление может быть разным в той или иной ситуации. Лучше повторить простое, знакомое слово, чем употребить синоним, который вам не очень понятен. Antonyms of some word may or may not be synonyms among themselves. If you want to express the opposite, you can also use NOT + adjective as a useful substitute for an antonym: funny – not funny; important – not important; young – not young; necessary – not necessary. Антонимы какого-то слова могут быть или не быть синонимами между собой. Если вы хотите выразить противоположное, можно также употребить NOT + прилагательное как полезный заменитель антонима: смешной – не смешной; важный – не важный; молодой – немолодой; нужный – не нужный. Note: Adjectives with NOT are placed after the verb BE (i.e., not before their nouns). Compare: He told me a funny joke. This is a funny joke. This joke is funny. This joke is not funny. Примечание: Прилагательные с NOT ставятся после глагола BE (т.е. не перед своими существительными). Сравните: He told me a funny joke. This is a funny joke. This joke is funny. This joke is not funny. The list below is for beginning learners. It contains frequently used adjectives. Only those meanings in which these adjectives are synonyms and antonyms are indicated in Russian translation. Список ниже – для начинающих изучающих. Он содержит часто употребляемые прилагательные. В русском переводе указаны только те значения, в которых эти прилагательные являются синонимами и антонимами. This list can be useful to you only if you study these adjectives thoroughly, especially their use in collocations. (Some methods of studying synonyms are described in How to Study Synonyms and Antonyms and Collocations in the section Vocabulary.) Данный список может быть полезен вам, только если вы тщательно изучите эти прилагательные, особенно их употребление в типичных словосочетаниях. (Некоторые методы изучения синонимов описываются в статьях How to Study Synonyms and Antonyms и Collocations в разделе Vocabulary.) Synonyms – Antonyms Синонимы – антонимы able, capable – unable, incapable способный – неспособный absent – present отсутствующий – присутствующий accurate – inaccurate верный, точный – неверный, неточный active, energetic – inactive, passive активный, энергичный – бездействующий, пассивный attentive – inattentive внимательный – невнимательный awful, terrible – great, excellent, wonderful ужасный – отличный, чудесный awkward, clumsy – graceful неловкий, неуклюжий – грациозный, изящный awkward, clumsy – skillful (BrE: skilful) неловкий, неуклюжий – искусный, умелый beautiful, handsome, attractive, good-looking, pretty – ugly красивый, привлекательный, с приятной внешностью, хорошенький – безобразный best – worst лучший – худший big, large – little, small большой – маленький bold, confident – timid, shy смелый, уверенный – робкий, застенчивый brave, bold – afraid, frightened храбрый, смелый – боящийся, испуганный bright, colorful (BrE: colourful) – dull, colorless (BrE: colourless) яркий, красочный – тусклый, бесцветный busy, occupied – free занятый – свободный calm, quiet – noisy, excited спокойный, тихий – шумный, взволнованный careful, cautious – careless, inattentive осмотрительный, осторожный – невнимательный cheerful, merry – gloomy, sad радостный, веселый – мрачный, печальный clean, neat – dirty чистый, опрятный – грязный clear – not clear, unclear ясный – неясный clever – foolish, silly, stupid сообразительный, умный – глупый, тупой cold, cool – hot, warm холодный, прохладный – горячий, теплый comfortable, cozy (BrE: cosy) – uncomfortable удобный, комфортабельный, уютный – неудобный confident, sure – not sure уверенный – не уверенный constructive – destructive конструктивный – разрушительный convenient – inconvenient удобный, подходящий – неудобный, неподходящий correct – incorrect, wrong правильный – неправильный crazy, mad – reasonable, sensible сумасшедший – разумный, здравый cruel, merciless – kind, humane жестокий, безжалостный – добрый, гуманный dangerous – safe опасный – безопасный, в безопасности dead – alive мертвый – живой decent – indecent приличный, порядочный – неприличный deep – shallow глубокий – мелкий definite, clear – vague, indefinite определенный, ясный – неясный, неопределенный delicious, tasty – tasteless, inedible вкусный – безвкусный, несъедобный different – the same, similar разный – одинаковый, похожий difficult, hard – easy трудный – легкий dry – wet сухой – мокрый eager, willing – reluctant страстно желающий, желающий – неохотный early – late ранний – поздний economic (situation; policy; development) экономический economical (person; use; car) экономный; экономичный educated – uneducated, ignorant образованный – необразованный, невежественный empty – full пустой – полный even, smooth – rough, uneven ровный, гладкий – неровный, негладкий evident, obvious, clear – vague, unclear очевидный, явный, ясный – неясный expensive, valuable – inexpensive, cheap дорогой, дорогостоящий, ценный – недорогой, дешевый experienced, qualified – inexperienced, unqualified опытный, квалифицированный – неопытный, неквалифицированный fair, just – unfair, unjust справедливый – несправедливый faithful, loyal – unfaithful, disloyal верный, преданный – неверный famous, well-known – unknown знаменитый, известный – неизвестный far, distant – near, close далекий, отдаленный – близкий fast, quick – slow быстрый – медленный female (child; elephant; workers) женский, женского пола feminine (dress; delicacy; voice); (ling.) feminine gender женский, женственный, свойственный женщинам; (лингв.) женский род fine, refined – common, ordinary тонкий, утонченный – обычный, обыкновенный firm, stable – shaky, unstable твердый, устойчивый – шаткий, неустойчивый first – last первый – последний flexible – rigid, inflexible гибкий – негнущийся, негибкий foreign – domestic, local иностранный – отечественный, местный frequent – rare частый – редкий fresh – stale свежий – несвежий friendly – unfriendly, hostile дружелюбный – недружелюбный, враждебный front – back, rear передний – задний funny, amusing – serious смешной, забавный, занимательный – серьезный general – special общий – специальный, особый generous – greedy щедрый – жадный gentle, soft, mild, tender – rough, severe мягкий, нежный – грубый, суровый good, nice, pleasant – bad, unpleasant хороший, приятный – плохой, неприятный happy, glad – unhappy, sad счастливый, довольный – несчастный, печальный hard – soft твердый – мягкий heavy – light тяжелый – легкий high – low высокий – низкий historic (moment; speech; event) исторический, исторически важный historical (fact; novel; event) исторический, имевший место в истории, связанный с историей honest, truthful, sincere – dishonest, insincere честный, правдивый, искренний – нечестный, неискренний huge, enormous – small, tiny огромный, громадный – маленький, крохотный important, significant – unimportant, insignificant важный, значительный – неважный, незначительный independent, free – not free независимый, свободный – не свободный intelligent, wise – foolish, stupid умный, мудрый – глупый, тупой interested, curious – indifferent, bored заинтересованный, любопытный – безразличный, скучающий interesting – dull, boring интересный – скучный kind – unkind, strict добрый – недобрый, строгий lazy – hard-working ленивый – работящий light – dark светлый – темный long – short, brief длинный – короткий, краткий loud, noisy – quiet, soft громкий, шумный – тихий, приглушенный lucky, fortunate – unlucky, unfortunate удачный, удачливый – неудачный, невезучий magnificent – shabby, miserable великолепный, величественный – убогий, жалкий main, chief – secondary, additional главный, основной – второстепенный, дополнительный male (child; elephant; workers) мужской, мужского пола masculine (features; strength; voice); (ling.) masculine gender мужской, мужественный, свойственный мужчинам; (лингв.) мужской род narrow – wide узкий – широкий natural – unnatural естественный – неестественный necessary, required – unnecessary необходимый, обязательный – ненужный nervous, worried – calm нервный, обеспокоенный – спокойный new, modern – old, old-fashioned новый, современный – старый, старомодный noble – mean благородный – подлый original – ordinary, banal оригинальный – обычный, банальный outstanding, remarkable – ordinary выдающийся, замечательный – обычный patient – impatient терпеливый – нетерпеливый polite – impolite, rude вежливый – невежливый, грубый positive – negative положительный – отрицательный possible – impossible возможный – невозможный previous, former – next предыдущий, бывший – следующий proud – modest гордый – скромный ready – not ready готовый – не готовый real – unreal реальный – нереальный real, genuine – artificial, fake настоящий, подлинный – искусственный, поддельный reasonable, sensible, logical – unreasonable, illogical, absurd, crazy разумный, здравый, логичный – неразумный, нелогичный, абсурдный, сумасшедший reliable, dependable – unreliable надежный – ненадежный rich, wealthy – poor богатый, состоятельный – бедный right – left правый – левый right, correct, true – wrong, incorrect, not true, false правильный, верный – неправильный, неверный, ложный round – square, triangular круглый – квадратный, треугольный selfish, egoistic – unselfish эгоистичный – неэгоистичный, бескорыстный sharp – dull, blunt острый – тупой shy – confident, self-confident робкий, застенчивый – уверенный, самоуверенный sick, ill – healthy больной – здоровый simple – complex, complicated простой – сложный, усложненный single, unmarried – married холостой, неженатый, незамужняя – женатый, замужняя strange, unusual – normal, usual странный, необычный – нормальный, обычный strong, tough – weak, delicate, fragile сильный, крепкий – слабый, нежный, хрупкий sufficient, enough – insufficient, not enough достаточный – недостаточный suitable, appropriate – unsuitable, inappropriate подходящий – неподходящий surprising, amazing – ordinary удивительный, изумительный – обычный sweet – sour, bitter, salty сладкий – кислый, горький, соленый tall – short высокий – низкий (о росте) tense – relaxed напряженный – расслабленный thick, fat – thin, slim толстый, жирный – тонкий, стройный transparent – not transparent прозрачный – непрозрачный true – not true, false верный – неверный, ложный understandable – not understandable, not clear понятный – непонятный, неясный useful, helpful – useless полезный – бесполезный whole, complete, full – incomplete, limited целый, полный – неполный, ограниченный young – middle-aged, old молодой – среднего возраста, старый nonyms – Antonyms Синонимы – Антонимы able, capable – unable, incapable способный – неспособный absent – present отсутствующий – присутствующий accurate – inaccurate точный, верный – неточный, неверный active, energetic, lively – inactive, passive, apathetic активный, энергичный, живой – бездействующий, пассивный, апатичный agile, nimble, deft – slow, sluggish, clumsy ловкий, проворный – медленный, неповоротливый, неуклюжий attentive, considerate, thoughtful – inattentive, inconsiderate внимательный, чуткий, внимательный к другим, думающий о других – невнимательный, невнимательный к другим awful, terrible, horrible, dreadful – great, excellent, wonderful ужасный, страшный, жуткий – отличный, чудесный awkward, clumsy – graceful неловкий, неуклюжий – грациозный, изящный awkward, clumsy – skillful (BrE: skilful), dexterous, deft, handy неловкий, неуклюжий – искусный, умелый, ловкий basic, fundamental – secondary, additional базовый, основной, основополагающий – второстепенный, дополнительный beautiful, handsome, attractive, good-looking, pretty – ugly, repulsive красивый, привлекательный, с приятной внешностью, хорошенький – безобразный, отталкивающий best – worst лучший – худший big, large – little, small большой – маленький bold, confident – timid, shy смелый, уверенный – робкий, застенчивый brave, bold, courageous, fearless – afraid, frightened, scared, timid, cowardly храбрый, смелый, отважный, бесстрашный – боящийся, испуганный, робкий, трусливый bright, vivid, colorful (BrE: colourful) – dull, dim, colorless (BrE: colourless) яркий, красочный – тусклый, неяркий, бесцветный busy, occupied – free занятый – свободный calm, quiet, peaceful – noisy, agitated, excited спокойный, тихий – шумный, возбужденный, взволнованный careful, cautious – careless, inattentive осмотрительный, осторожный – невнимательный cheerful, joyful – cheerless, gloomy радостный – безрадостный, мрачный clean, neat, tidy – dirty, untidy чистый, аккуратный, опрятный – грязный, неопрятный clear – not clear, unclear ясный – неясный clever, smart – foolish, silly, stupid сообразительный, умный – глупый, тупой cold, chilly, cool – hot, warm холодный, прохладный – горячий, теплый comfortable, cozy – uncomfortable удобный, комфортабельный, уютный – неудобный confident, sure, certain, positive – not sure, uncertain, doubtful уверенный, несомненный – неуверенный, сомневающийся, сомнительный constructive – destructive конструктивный – разрушительный convenient – inconvenient удобный, подходящий – неудобный, неподходящий correct – incorrect, wrong правильный – неправильный crazy, mad, insane – reasonable, sensible, rational сумасшедший – разумный, здравый cruel, merciless, ruthless, inhuman – kind, merciful, humane, compassionate жестокий, безжалостный, бесчеловечный – добрый, милосердный, гуманный, сострадательный dead – alive мертвый – живой deceptive, false, misleading – true, real обманчивый, ложный, вводящий в заблуждение – верный, настоящий deep, profound – shallow, superficial глубокий, основательный – мелкий, поверхностный definite, clear – vague, unclear, indefinite определенный, ясный – неясный, неопределенный delicious, tasty – tasteless, unpalatable, inedible вкусный – безвкусный, невкусный, несъедобный different – the same, similar разный – одинаковый, похожий difficult, hard – easy трудный – легкий dry – wet сухой – мокрый eager, willing – reluctant, unwilling страстно желающий, желающий – неохотный, нежелающий early – late ранний – поздний economic (situation; policy; development) экономический economical (person; use; car) экономный; экономичный educated, literate – uneducated, ignorant, illiterate образованный, грамотный – необразованный, невежественный, неграмотный elegant, graceful, tasteful – inelegant, tasteless элегантный, изящный, со вкусом – неизящный, безвкусный empty – full пустой – полный essential, indispensable, requisite, necessary, required – unnecessary, optional, dispensable существенно важный, неотъемлемый, обязательный, необходимый, требуемый – ненужный, необязательный even, smooth – rough, uneven ровный, гладкий – неровный, негладкий even – odd, uneven четный – нечетный evident, obvious, clear, plain – vague, unclear, obscure очевидный, явный, ясный – неясный evil, malicious – kind, nice, good зловредный, злобный – добрый, хороший exact, precise – inaccurate, inexact точный – неточный expensive, costly, valuable – inexpensive, cheap дорогой, дорогостоящий, ценный – недорогой, дешевый experienced, skilled, competent, qualified – inexperienced, unskilled, incompetent, unqualified опытный, умелый, компетентный, квалифицированный – неопытный, неумелый, некомпетентный, неквалифицированный fair, just, objective, unbiased, impartial – unfair, unjust, biased, prejudiced справедливый, объективный, непредубежденный, беспристрастный – несправедливый, предвзятый, предубежденный faithful, loyal, devoted – unfaithful, disloyal, treacherous верный, преданный – неверный, предательский famous, renowned, celebrated, distinguished, well-known – unknown, obscure знаменитый, известный, прославленный, выдающийся, хорошо известный – неизвестный fantastic, unreal – real, actual, true фантастический, нереальный – реальный, действительный far, distant, remote – near, close далекий, отдаленный – близкий fashionable, stylish – unfashionable, not in style, old-fashioned модный, стильный – немодный, старомодный fast, quick, rapid, speedy, swift – slow быстрый, скорый, стремительный – медленный favorable, beneficial, profitable – harmful благоприятный, благотворный, выгодный – пагубный, вредный female (child; elephant; workers) женский, женского пола feminine (dress; delicacy; voice); (ling.) feminine gender женский, женственный, свойственный женщинам; (лингв.) женский род fine, refined, delicate, exquisite – common, ordinary тонкий, утонченный, изысканный – обычный, заурядный firm, steady, stable, strong – shaky, unstable, weak твердый, прочный, устойчивый, крепкий – шаткий, неустойчивый, слабый first, initial – last, final первый, начальный – последний, конечный flexible – rigid, inflexible, stiff гибкий – негибкий foreign, alien – domestic, local, native иностранный, чужой, чуждый – отечественный, местный, родной fragile, delicate – strong, sturdy хрупкий, нежный – крепкий, прочный frequent – rare, infrequent частый – редкий, нечастый fresh – stale свежий – несвежий friendly – unfriendly, hostile дружелюбный – недружелюбный, враждебный front – back, rear передний – задний funny, amusing, humorous, comic, comical, laughable, ridiculous – serious, grave смешной, забавный, занимательный, юмористический, комический, комичный, смехотворный – серьезный, крайне серьезный general – special, particular, specific общий – особенный, особый, специфичный, конкретный generous – greedy, miserly, stingy; economical, thrifty щедрый – жадный, скупой; экономный, бережливый gentle, mild, soft – coarse, rough, harsh, severe мягкий, нежный – грубый, жесткий, суровый good, nice, pleasant – bad, unpleasant, disgusting хороший, приятный – плохой, неприятный, отвратительный good-natured – ill-natured добродушный – злобный, недоброжелательный happy, glad, pleased – unhappy, sad, miserable счастливый, довольный – несчастный, печальный, жалкий hard – soft твердый – мягкий heavy – light тяжелый – легкий high – low высокий – низкий historic (moment; speech; event) исторический, исторически важный historical (fact; novel; event) исторический, имевший место в истории, связанный с историей honest, truthful, trustworthy, sincere – dishonest, untruthful, deceitful, lying, insincere честный, правдивый, достойный доверия, искренний – нечестный, лживый, неискренний huge, enormous, colossal, giant, gigantic – small, tiny огромный, громадный, колоссальный, гигантский – маленький, крохотный important, significant – unimportant, insignificant, petty важный, значительный – неважный, незначительный, мелкий incredible, unbelievable – credible, trustworthy неправдоподобный, невероятный – правдоподобный, заслуживающий доверия independent, free – dependent, not free независимый, свободный – зависимый, несвободный intelligent, wise – foolish, dull, stupid умный, мудрый – глупый, тупой interested, curious – uninterested, disinterested, indifferent, bored заинтересованный, любопытный – незаинтересованный, безразличный, скучающий interesting – dull, boring интересный – скучный invaluable, priceless, precious – worthless, valueless неоценимый, бесценный, драгоценный – ничего не стоящий, не имеющий ценности kind, good-natured – strict, unkind, ill-natured добрый, добродушный – строгий, недобрый, злобный, недоброжелательный lazy, idle – hard-working ленивый, праздный – работящий light – dark светлый – темный long – short, brief, concise длинный – короткий, краткий, сжатый loud, noisy – quiet, soft громкий, шумный – тихий, приглушенный loving, fond, affectionate, tender – unloving, indifferent, harsh любящий, нежный – нелюбящий, безразличный, суровый lucky, fortunate – unlucky, unfortunate удачный, удачливый – неудачный, невезучий magnificent, grand, majestic – shabby, miserable великолепный, величественный – убогий, жалкий main, chief, principal – subordinate, subsidiary, secondary, auxiliary, additional главный, основной – второстепенный, вспомогательный, дополнительный male (child; elephant; workers) мужской, мужского пола masculine (features; strength; voice); (ling.) masculine gender мужской, мужественный, свойственный мужчинам; (лингв.) мужской род moral, ethical, decent – immoral, unethical, indecent, obscene моральный, нравственный, этичный, приличный, порядочный – аморальный, безнравственный, неэтичный, неприличный, непристойный narrow – wide узкий – широкий natural – unnatural, affected естественный – неестественный necessary, required – unnecessary, optional необходимый, обязательный – ненужный, необязательный nervous, anxious, concerned, worried – calm, confident нервный, беспокоящийся, озабоченный, встревоженный – спокойный, уверенный new, modern, up-to-date – old, old-fashioned, outdated, ancient новый, современный – старый, старомодный, устаревший, древний noble, honorable – mean благородный – подлый normal, usual, standard, regular – strange, peculiar, odd, unusual нормальный, обычный, стандартный – странный, необычный original – ordinary, banal, trite оригинальный – обычный, банальный, избитый outstanding, prominent, eminent, remarkable – ordinary, mediocre выдающийся, видный, замечательный – обычный, заурядный patient – impatient терпеливый – нетерпеливый polite, civilized, well-mannered – impolite, rude, ill-mannered вежливый, хорошо воспитанный, с хорошими манерами – невежливый, грубый, невоспитанный positive, affirmative – negative положительный, утвердительный – отрицательный possible, probable, likely – impossible, improbable, unlikely возможный, весьма вероятный, вероятный – невозможный, невероятный, маловероятный previous, preceding, former – next, following предыдущий, предшествующий, бывший – следующий primary – secondary первичный, первостепенный – вторичный, второстепенный proper – improper надлежащий, подходящий – неподходящий, неуместный proud, arrogant, haughty – modest, humble гордый, заносчивый, высокомерный, надменный – скромный, непритязательный ready – not ready готовый – не готовый real, genuine, authentic – artificial, fake, fictitious настоящий, подлинный, аутентичный – искусственный, поддельный, выдуманный reasonable, sensible, logical, rational – unreasonable, illogical, irrational, absurd, crazy, foolish разумный, здравый, логичный – неразумный, нелогичный, абсурдный, сумасшедший, глупый reliable, dependable – unreliable надежный – ненадежный respectable, reputable – notorious, infamous уважаемый, с хорошей репутацией – печально известный, пользующийся дурной славой rich, wealthy, well-to-do – poor богатый, состоятельный – бедный right – left правый – левый right, correct, true – wrong, incorrect, not true, false, erroneous правильный, верный – неправильный, неверный, ложный, ошибочный round – square, triangular круглый – квадратный, треугольный safe, secure – unsafe, insecure, dangerous безопасный, в безопасности – небезопасный, опасный selfish, egoistic – unselfish, selfless эгоистичный – неэгоистичный, бескорыстный, самооотверженный sharp, keen, acute – dull, blunt острый – тупой shy, timid – confident, self-confident робкий, застенчивый – уверенный, самоуверенный sick, ill – healthy больной – здоровый simple, plain – complex, complicated простой – сложный, усложненный single, only, sole, unique – double, multiple, numerous одиночный, единственный, уникальный – двойной, множественный, многочисленный single, unmarried – married холостой, неженатый, незамужняя – женатый, замужняя sly, cunning, crafty, tricky – honest, direct, open хитрый, коварный – честный, прямой, открытый strong, tough, sturdy – weak, delicate, fragile сильный, крепкий – слабый, нежный, хрупкий stubborn, obstinate – compliant, docile, obedient, submissive, manageable упрямый, упорный – уступчивый, послушный, покорный, (легко) управляемый sufficient, adequate, enough – insufficient, inadequate, not enough достаточный – недостаточный suitable, fitting, appropriate – unsuitable, inappropriate подходящий – неподходящий surprising, amazing – ordinary удивительный, изумительный – обычный sweet – sour, bitter, salty сладкий – кислый, горький, соленый tall – short высокий – низкий (о росте) tense – relaxed напряженный – расслабленный thick, fat – thin, slim, slender толстый, жирный – тонкий, стройный tight – loose плотный, натянутый – свободный transparent, clear – not transparent, opaque прозрачный – непрозрачный true – not true, false верный – неверный, ложный understandable, intelligible, comprehensible – not understandable, unintelligible, incomprehensible понятный, доступный для понимания, постижимый – непонятный, недоступный пониманию, непостижимый useful, helpful – useless полезный – бесполезный whole, entire, complete, full, total – incomplete, limited, partial целый, полный – неполный, ограниченный, частичный young – middle-aged, old, elderly молодой – среднего возраста, старый, пожилойрый © 2007-2016 UsefulEng
allow, permit, let ALLOW (разрешить, позволить): allow the children to watch TV; allow the students to leave early; he allowed them to stay in his house; I was not allowed to visit her; smoking is not allowed here; she does not allow using her computer; allow me to help you; allow me to explain; allow me to introduce myself; she allows herself no chocolate; his parents allow him ten dollars a day for books; she spends more than her budget allows; allow at least two hours for changing planes. PERMIT (разрешить, позволить): the law permits it; they permitted him to visit the prison; she wasn’t permitted to talk to him; they don’t permit parking here; permit me to explain; his tone permitted of no objection; these facts permit of no doubt; call me when time permits; we’ll go there, weather permitting. LET (less formal: разрешить, позволить): let me help you; let me do it for you; let me talk to him; let me explain; let me tell you; let me introduce myself; let me see; let me think; let me guess; let me know; I’ll let you know about it; he let them stay in his house; let me pass; let him go; let her try; let her finish; don’t let it happen again; let it be; let it go; let go of my hand; let me in; let me out; let him be; let him alone; he can’t sit, let alone walk; she lets rooms to students; let’s go; let’s wait for him; let us say; let us assume that this is true; let us not forget that he is only 20 years old. ask, beg, request ASK (спрашивать; просить): ask a question; I asked him a question; she asked me about my work (my family, friends, plans); he asked after her health; she asked what he was going to do; she asked whether he wanted something to eat; ask directions; ask the way; ask the time; she asked politely (anxiously, nervously, quietly, softly, loudly, amiably, coldly, dryly, sarcastically, suspiciously); Can I ask you something? I forgot to ask him about it; I wanted to ask; I meant to ask; I didn’t dare (to) ask; I couldn’t help asking; I couldn’t resist asking; ask for help (for advice; for money; for a favor; for more information); ask (for) permission to do something; he asked for the manager; here’s the book you asked for; she asked me to help her; ask him to do it; they asked her to dinner; she asked to see him; he asked to be excused from the meeting; I have a favor to ask (of you); you are asking too much (of me); if it’s not too much to ask. BEG (умолять): beg for money (for help, for food, for mercy, for life); beg forgiveness; beg permission; beg a favor; beg alms; beg one’s bread; beg from door to door; she begged to go with us; they begged him to help their family; she begged them to show mercy; she practically begged him not to leave her; he begged her to forgive him; he almost begged for this job; beg humbly; she begged that she be allowed to stay with her children; she was forced to beg; I beg your pardon? I beg to differ; I beg to disagree; I beg of you not to go there; those jobs went begging; beg the question. REQUEST (вежливо, официально просить): he requested an answer (a favor); he requests permission to speak; the bank requests payment; she requests that I should be there; he requests to be excused from this duty (from the meeting); he requested them to be present at the meeting; an answer is requested (of you); he acted as requested; visitors are requested to keep off the grass; we repeatedly (immediately, urgently, specifically, expressly, politely, formally) requested more information from them. bear, carry BEAR (нести ношу, выдержать, родить): bear the burden of something; bear the consequences; bear responsibility; bear the cost; bear the blame; bear the cross; bear pain; the right to bear arms; bear a resemblance; bear witness; bear a grudge against someone; bear oneself with dignity; bear in mind; the ice won’t bear his weight; I can’t bear this heat; I can hardly bear to see him; please bear with me; the trees bear fruit; she bore him three sons; she has borne two daughters; he was born in 1993. CARRY (нести): carry a bag; carry a suitcase; I’ll carry this bag for you; carry a baby in one’s arms; carry a gun; carry small change in the pocket; carry one’s head high; this pipe carries water to the village; wind carries sound; she carried the news to all of her neighbors; carry something too far; carry to extremes; don’t get carried away. beat, hit, strike, knock BEAT (бить): her heart was beating fast; rain was beating against the windows; beat the rhythm; beat the drum; beat an alarm; beat the rug; they beat an old man; they beat him to death; beat someone black and blue; beat with a stick; you can’t beat anything into his head; beat a path; beat the eggs; beat the record; she beat him at chess; it beats me how she did it; he beat me to it. HIT (ударить): hit the ball; hit the nail with a hammer; he hit her; hit someone on the head; he hit his elbow on the door; hit hard; hit with a stick; he was hit by a car; the car hit the tree; prices hit a new low; the bullet hit the target; hit the mark; hit home; hit the nail on the head; hit below the belt; hit someone where it hurts; hit the ceiling; hit the road; hit the hay; hit someone’s fancy. STRIKE (ударить): strike a blow; strike the nail with a hammer; he struck her; strike someone on the head; he struck his elbow on the door; strike with a stick; strike hard; strike repeatedly; the ship struck a rock; the lightning struck the tree; the clock struck nine; strike a match; strike a bargain; strike a deal; strike hands; strike a balance; strike home; strike oil; strike it rich; strike someone’s fancy; strike someone speechless; it strikes me as strange. KNOCK (стучать, ударить): knock at the door; knock on the door; knock on wood; knock twice; knock lightly; knock loudly; the engine is knocking badly; knock a glass from the table; knock a vase to pieces; the blow knocked him unconscious; knock into a table; knock down; knock out; knock over. begin, start, commence BEGIN (начать): begin work at nine o’clock; the concert begins at seven; I don’t know where to begin; Where do I begin? begin at the beginning; we begin tomorrow; she began to cry; she began crying; let’s begin; Shall I begin? I can’t begin to understand it; beginning with January; the day began with good news; What shall we begin with? let’s begin with tea; To begin with, how did he get in the house? START (начать, особенно новое): start work at nine o’clock; When do I start? we start tomorrow; she started to cry; she started crying; start a journey; start a car; start a conversation; start a fight; start a family; start a new company; he started his own business; the fire started in the basement; starting with January; the day started with good news; we’ll start with coffee; start from the beginning; start from scratch; the bell rang so loudly that I started; she started with fear when she heard his voice. COMMENCE (formal: начать): commence legal proceedings; commence proceedings in court; commence a court action; commence a lawsuit; commence prosecution. choose, select, pick, pick out, elect CHOOSE (выбирать из двух или более; предпочесть, решить): choose a tie; choose a car; choose a book for me; choose friends; choose the cast; choose a chairman; choose one’s words; choose between two evils; choose carefully; choose well; choose poorly; he chose wisely; choose freely; you are free to choose whichever you want; choose anything you want; there’s nothing to choose from; choose for yourself; she chose to leave; he chose to stay. SELECT (more formal: выбирать, отбирать из группы): select a wine; select a tie; select a jury; select the cast; they selected him to represent them; select goods from a catalogue; select carefully; select deliberately; select tastefully; select fastidiously; select arbitrarily; select at random; select automatically. PICK (less formal: выбирать, отбирать из группы): she always picks the best; they picked the best candidate; pick one’s words carefully; you can’t pick and choose in this situation. PICK OUT (less formal: выбирать, отбирать из группы): pick out the dress that you like; she picked out the red one; she always picks out the best fruit on the market; pick out for yourself the tomatoes that you want to buy. ELECT (избрать официально; предпочесть, решить): elect a chairman; they elected him chairman; he was elected chairman; elect a mayor; elect as a candidate; he was elected to the city council; elect unanimously; elect for the term of five years; elect by popular vote; she elected to leave; he elected to remain silent. clean, clear CLEAN (очищать): clean the shoes; clean the clothes; clean the carpet; clean your room; clean the window; clean out the closet; clean out one’s savings; clean one’s plate. CLEAR (очищать, прояснять): clear the table after dinner; clear a path; clear the way; clear snow from the driveway; clear the room of people; clear out the closet; clear up the mess; clear the meaning; clear up the mystery; clear one’s throat; clear one’s voice; clear one’s mind; clear one’s name; clear oneself of a charge; the sky is clearing; the weather is clearing up. close, shut CLOSE (закрыть): close the door; close the window; the window will not close; close with a bang; close your books; close your eyes; close your mouth; close the store for the night; the stores are closed now; the bank closes at 5:00; close a bank account; close a road; close the border; close down a factory; close a hole; close a case; close a meeting; the discussion is closed; close a deal; close a sale on a house; his wounds closed. SHUT (закрыть): shut the door; shut the window; shut the lid; shut your books; shut your eyes; shut your mouth; Shut up! shut the store for the night; shut the dogs in the barn; shut down a factory; my computer shut down; they shut him from their circle. Note: LOCK (запирать на замок): lock the door; lock the gate; lock the building; lock the store; lock the dogs in the barn; lock up a prisoner; he locked her in his arms; gears locked into place; it locks automatically. collect, gather, pick, pick up COLLECT (собирать; коллекционировать): collect information; collect data; collect facts; collect signatures; collect stamps; collect coins; collect rare books; collect taxes; collect a debt; collect a bill; collect on delivery; he went to the post office to collect his mail; collect oneself; collect one’s courage; collect one’s thoughts; students collected in the hall; a crowd collected at the scene of the accident; rain water collected in the tank. GATHER (собирать; набирать силу, скорость): gather your toys from the floor; gather the pieces of a broken cup; she gathered her things and left; gather in a heap; gather flowers; gather strawberries; gather wild berries; gather fruit; gather mushrooms; gather a good crop; gather information; gather facts; gather strength; gather speed; gather experience; gather dust; gather oneself; gather one’s courage; gather one’s thoughts; the street show gathered a crowd; students gathered in the hall; they gathered around the table; clouds are gathering. PICK (less formal: собирать цветы, ягоды и т.д.): pick flowers; pick strawberries; pick wild berries; pick mushrooms. PICK UP (less formal: подбирать, поднимать; набирать силу, скорость; прибирать комнату): pick up a penny from the floor; she picked up her things and left; he went to the post office to pick up his mail; I’ll pick you up at seven o’clock; the dog picked up the scent; pick up strength; pick up speed; the wind is picking up; business is picking up; a cup of strong tea will pick me up; you need to pick up your room. come, arrive COME (приходить): come home; come here; come to my house; come over for dinner; Can you come? Won’t you come in? come in, please; come back; come with me; come quickly; come early; come again; I came here by bus; the train from Boston comes at noon; she comes from Texas; June comes after May; winter is coming; come of age; come true; come what may; come in handy; come into effect; come into a fortune; come to light; come to an end; come to nothing; come to a decision; come to a conclusion; it came to me that I had seen him before; you had it coming; they come and go. ARRIVE (прибыть): arrive in London; arrive by train; arrive in the evening; the train arrives at three; arrive early; arrive at the hotel at night; arrive at the airport an hour before the flight; arrive at a decision; I arrived at the conclusion that he lied to me. consist, comprise, include, contain CONSIST (of: состоять из; in: заключаться в): his report consists of six parts; the United States consists of fifty states; the United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Great Britain consists of England, Scotland, and Wales; water consists of hydrogen and oxygen (water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen); his supper consisted of bread and milk; friendship consists in sharing and help; your task consists in finding a new place for our office; consist mainly (mostly, largely, primarily, entirely, only) of (in) something. COMPRISE (заключать в себе; составлять): the United Kingdom comprises England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland; her collection of books comprises two thousand volumes; women comprise about 60 percent of students at this university. INCLUDE (включать в себя; иметь в своём составе): this edition includes all of his poems; his report includes a preface and an index; her collection of books includes several rare books; the package included a brief manual; batteries are not included in the set; please include this information in your letter; the names of new members haven’t been included in the list yet; she paid for everything, postage included; twenty people were present, including five children. CONTAIN (содержать; вмещать; сдерживать, не давать выхода): this manual contains a lot of useful information; the package contained a birthday card and a silver medallion on a silver chain; this box contains twelve bottles; this cake contains a lot of sugar; beer contains alcohol; a gallon contains four quarts; he could hardly contain his anger (indignation, amusement, laughter, eagerness); please try to contain yourself; contain a fire; contain inflation. cry, shout, yell CRY (плакать, кричать): I saw her crying; Why are you crying? please don’t cry; she cried when she saw it; cry like a baby; cry oneself to sleep; cry one’s eyes out; cry bitter tears; cry with grief; cry with anger; cry with pain; cry loudly; cry out. SHOUT (кричать): don’t shout at children; please don’t shout; Stop shouting! I heard her shouting; shout loudly; shout angrily; shout with pain; shout for help; shout orders; shout out. YELL (орать): Don’t yell at me! Stop yelling! she is always yelling; yell angrily; yell with pain; yell orders. demand, claim, require, need DEMAND (требовать как необходимое; настоятельно спрашивать): I demand an apology (an explanation, an aswer); he demanded money from them; she demanded payment of the debt; he demands obedience; this task demands patience (great care, skills, energy); she demanded that he leave immediately; I demand to be shown the whole report; the suspect demands that he be allowed to call his lawyer; „Who told you that?” she demanded; demand angrily (indignantly, furiously, aggressively, irritably, coldly). CLAIM (требовать как принадлежащее по праву; заявлять): he claimed the throne; she claimed her right to the estate; he claimed payment (compensation, damages); he claimed an exemption for dependents; he tried to claim back some of his expenses; this problem claims attention; she claimed against them / on them; he claims to be the sole heir; he claims to own the house; she claims that she was tricked into selling her house; claim rightfully; claim falsely. REQUIRE (требовать как необходимое, установленное правилами): do as the law requires; you are required to register; I did everything that was required of me; the law requires us to pay taxes; the teacher required that her students should attend the conference; the officers required absolute obedience from/of their soldiers; she requires medical care; this task requires patience (great care, skills, energy); these flowers require a lot of water; this noun requires the definite article; the house requires painting; as circumstances may require; if required; when required. NEED (нуждаться в; требоваться): we need bread, butter, and milk; we need to buy some meat; she needs help; I need your help; I really need you; I need a map of Moscow; call me if you need something; I need more time; I need to work harder; I don’t need it; you don’t need to do it; she needs medical care; these flowers need a lot of water; the water tap needs fixing; the house needs painting; this room needs cleaning; his shirts need ironing; if needed; when needed. do, make DO (делать): do housework; do the dishes; do the room; do the cooking; do the shopping; do homework; do an exercise; do a sum; do math; do research; do business with someone; do one’s work; do one’s job; do one’s duty; do one’s part; I’ll do my best; she did her hair; don’t do it; she has already done it; do me a favor; do something; do nothing; do anything you want; do a number of things; do the right thing; do good; do justice to someone; do harm; do magic; do wonders; do the trick; do fifty miles an hour; do five years in prison; do right; do wrong; he did well at the exam; well done; How do you do? How are you doing? I’m doing fine; What can I do for you? What does she do? What is she doing? I don’t know; I have work to do; I have nothing to do; I have nothing to do with it; easy does it; That does it! that will do. MAKE (делать, создавать): make breakfast; make dinner; make lunch; make a meal; make soup; make pizza; make a pie; make a sandwich; make coffee; make tea; make a drink; make a dress; make furniture; make cars; make money; make a living; make a fortune; make a telephone call; make an appointment; make a reservation; make plans; make changes; make a request; make a suggestion; make an offer; make a promise; make a decision; make a complaint; make a deal; make a speech; make a will; make a wish; make an attempt; make a discovery; make a mistake; make a difference; make a fuss; make a mess; make progress; make sense; make trouble; make peace; make love; make room for something; make sure; make certain; make friends; make believe; make do; make the best of it; make the most of it; make him do it; it made him rich; it made her angry; make yourself at home; make up your mind; two and two makes four; I can’t make it at 8:00; he will make a good teacher; she had it made. defend, protect, guard, safeguard DEFEND (защищать, оборонять): he defended his family; he defended them from the attackers; they defended their town from/against the enemy (from/against attack); they will defend their country; he defended himself with a stick; defend yourself; defend your rights (your beliefs); he tried to defend his point (his decision); he hired a good lawyer to defend him in court; defend a case; defend a suit; the champion defended his title successfully. PROTECT (защищать, охранять, предохранять от): parents must protect their children from bad influence (from infectious diseases); wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from the sun; this cream will protect your skin from/against sunburn; protect iron from corrosion; protect forests from fire; protect property from intruders; protect from harm (from injury, from danger, from loss, from insult; from attack, from intruders); they protect their own interests. GUARD (охранять, сторожить; оберегать от): guard the prison (the prisoners); guard the door; guard a camp; guard a secret; guard one’s reputation; parents must guard their children from bad influence (from infectious diseases); try to guard against infection (against temptation); check your spelling regularly to guard against typical mistakes; guard one’s temper (one’s tongue). SAFEGUARD (охранять, предохранять, гарантировать от): she is trying to safeguard her interests (her rights, her privacy, her health); schools must safeguard the children from harm; this medicine will safeguard you against the return of the illness; new measures to safeguard the industry against/from foreign competition. SHIELD (защищать, заслонить): she shielded her eyes from the bright light with her hand; he shielded the child with his own body; he lied to the police to shield his younger brother; he has always tried to shield her from harm (from danger, from gossip, from blame); shield from prosecution; shield from invasion; new measures to shield the companies from foreign competition. fall, drop FALL (падать): I fell and hurt my elbow; she tripped over a stone and fell; the cup fell and broke; snow is falling; rain is falling; the temperature fell ten degrees; prices fell by 20 percent; leaves fall from the trees in autumn; he fell from the bicycle; he fell on his knees; fall down; fall to the ground; fall to the floor; his voice fell to a whisper; his birthday falls on a Sunday this year; the stress falls on the first syllable; their choice fell on him; suspicion fell on her; the river falls into the sea; fall into place; fall into a trap; fall into a habit; fall in love; fall to pieces; fall on one’s feet; fall out of use; fall victim to someone’s trick; fall asleep; fall ill; fall flat; fall short. DROP (падать, ронять, прекращать, капать): the temperature dropped twenty degrees; prices dropped sharply; sales dropped by 50 percent; the number of visitors dropped from 500 to 75; he dropped to his knees; he dropped his voice; Drop dead! I dropped my keys; she dropped her glasses; drop me at the corner; drop me a line; drop a word for me; drop a hint; drop into a habit; let’s drop the subject; she dropped old friends; he dropped his studies; she drops her t’s at the end of words; she dropped out of school; he dropped from sight; drop from a competition; light rain dropped; water drops from the roof; drop a tear over something. Note: DRIP (капать): the water tap is dripping; I was dripping wet; he was dripping with blood. find, discover FIND (найти): find an answer; find a solution; find a way to do it; find a mistake; find a dollar in the street; he foun